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LOCOMOTIVES 



LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING, 



BEING 



A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE GROWTH OF THE RAILROAD SYSTEM AND OF THE 

VARIOUS IMPROVEMENTS IN LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING IN AMERICA 

TOGETHER WITH A HISTORY OF THE 



ORIGIN AND GROWTH 



OF THE 



Rogers Locomotive ** Machine Works, 

PATERSON, NEW JERSEY, 



FROM 1831 TO 1886. 



J. S. ROGERS, Preset. \ R. S. HUGHES, Trcas'r. 

R. S. HUGHES, Sec'y. > PATERSON, N. J. 44 Exchange Place, 

JOHN Tfffi>nnoTJ, ,gtf/'& ) NEW YORK. 



NEW YORK : 

WM. S. GOTTSBERGER, I'RINTER, II MURRAY STREET, 
1886. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1886, 

BY THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE & MACHINE WORKS, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



PREFACE 



The last catalogue of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works with 
a sketch of the origin and growth of that establishment, was published in 1876. 

Since then many changes have been made in the equipment of these 
Works and in the character, design, and dimensions of the locomotives turned 
out. To describe these adequately it was necessary to rewrite nearly the whole 
of the former volume. This work was entrusted to my hands by the officers of 
the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works. As it was commenced during 
the fiftieth year that the establishment had been engaged in the manufacture of 
locomotives, it seemed a suitable time to give a somewhat full account of the 
origin and history of the Works, and of the evolution of the locomotives built 
in them during that period. Such an account has been carefully prepared, and 
consists very largely of what may be called a mechanical history of the work 
which has been done ; which, it is thought, will be interesting to many readers, 
as it shows the successive steps which have led to the wonderful development 
of the locomotive in this country. It also indicates the extent to which the 
perfection of the modern American type of locomotive is due to the ingenuity, 
mechanical skill, and sound judgment of the founder of this establishment 
Mr. Thomas Rogers, and to his successor Mr. William S. Hudson. Both 
of them have left a record of their genius and ability in their designs, which are 
imitated to-day, and which promise to survive until locomotives are superceded. 

Very complete data concerning the dimensions and performance of the 
locomotives which this establishment is now prepared to furnish are given by 
illustrations and tables in the latter part of the book, and as there is still 
considerable difference of opinion and practice in calculating the capacity of 
locomotives, an explanatory chapter is given showing just how the calculations 
were made. 

M. N. FORNEY. 
NEW YORK, October i, 1886. 

^46018 
479 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE ORIGIN OF THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS, - i 

CHAPTER II. 
THE EARLY HISTORY OF RAILROADS IN THIS COUNTRY, 3 

CHAPTER III. 
THE EARLY HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVES IN THIS COUNTRY, - 6 

CHAPTER IV. 

HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING AT THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND 

MACHINE WORKS, n 

CHAPTER V. 

THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE: THE BOILER: THE 

ENGINES : THE RUNNING GEAR, - 23 

CHAPTER VI. 
THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS IN 1886, 76 

CHAPTER VII. 

A REMARKABLE RUN OF 426.6 MILES BY ROGERS' LOCOMOTIVES ON 

THE NEW YORK, WEST SHORE AND BUFFALO RAILWAY, 80 

CHAPTER VIII. 
THE TRACTIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES, 93 

CHAPTER IX. 

PLATES AND TABLES OF DIMENSIONS AND CAPACITY OF LOCOMOTIVES 

OF 4 FT., 8^2 IN. GAUGE OR WIDER, - - 101 

CHAPTER X. 

PLATES AND TABLES OF DIMENSIONS AND CAPACITY OF NARROW GAUGE 

LOCOMOTIVES, 173 

INDEX, 195 



THE ROGERS 
LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS were founded by Thomas 
Rogers, who was born March i6th, 1792, in the town of Groton in New London 
County, Connecticut. He died in New York City, April igth, 1856. He served 
in the war of 1812, and was a lineal descendant of Thomas Rogers, one of the Pilgrim 
Fathers, who came over to this country from England in the Mayflower. At the age of 
sixteen he was apprenticed to learn the trade of a house carpenter, and in the summer of 
1812 he removed to Paterson, N. J., then a small village which at that time was very 
prosperous on account of the demand for American manufactures brought about by the 
war with Great Britain. Many of the manufacturers were reduced to bankruptcy on 
conclusion of peace, in 1815. 

At this time he was employed as a journeyman carpenter, and was noted for his 
constant application to business, good judgment, and force of character. A few years 
afterward, Captain Ward, who had been travelling in Europe, where he had seen the 
power-loom in operation, came to Paterson for the purpose of introducing the 
manufacture of cotton duck. Mr. Rogers was employed to make the patterns for these 
looms. He very soon understood their construction and recognized their value and 
bought from Captain Ward the patent right for making them. 

In 1819, he associated himself with John Clark, Jr., under the firm name of 
Clark & Rogers. They commenced work in the basement story of the Beaver Mill, a 
building which at an early day had been put up by Mr. Clark's father. Shortly after- 
wards, Mr. Rogers visited Mexico, where he received large orders for looms, etc. In 
1820 the firm moved into the little Beaver Mill, and in the following year took into 
partnership Abraham Godwin, Jr., and the firm name was then changed to Godwin, 
Rogers & Co. They then commenced spinning cotton and building machinery for that 
and other purposes. 

In 1822, finding their accommodations too limited, they leased Collett's Mill and 
moved into it. Their business continued to increase, the number of persons employed 
being sometimes as high as 200. The establishment continued to prosper until the sum- 
mer of 1831. In the latter part of June of that year Mr. Rogers withdrew, and took 
with him $38,000 as his share of the profits of the firm. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



He then took a mill-site on the upper raceway in Paterson, and immediately 
commenced the erection of the " Jefferson Works," which were ^finished and put in 
operation before the close of the following year. The location and building of the 
" Jefferson Works " was literally an encroachment on the forest. On the upper race no 
factories had been put up, except two little cotton mills and a small machine shop, the 
latter owned by Messrs. Paul & Beggs. Between Spruce and Mill streets, all was swamp 
covered with pines. 

It was the intention of Mr. Rogers to devote the lower stories of the "Jefferson 
Works " to building machinery, and the upper stories to spinning cotton. The latter 
was, however, never commenced, as the demand for machinery increased so fast that the 
whole of the new building was devoted to that branch of the business. 

In the early part of 1832, he associated with himself Messrs. Morris Ketchum 
and Jasper Grosvenor, of New York, the name of the firm being Rogers, Ketchum & 
Grosvenor. 

In that year the railroad from Jersey City to Paterson was approaching 
completion, and the iron work for the bridges over the Passaic and Hackensack rivers 
had been made by Mr. Rogers. An order was also executed for one hundred sets 
of wheels and axles for the South Carolina railroad, of which Mr. Horatio Allen was 
then chief engineer. A short time before Mr. Allen had visited England to get 
information about the use of locomotives on railroads, and at the time he ordered the 
work for the South Carolina Railroad he recommended Mr. Rogers to undertake the 
construction of locomotives. 

In the following letter, written more than fifty years after the event, Mr. Allen 
describes his interview with Mr. Rogers : 

SOUTH ORANGE, N. J., Dec. 31, 1884. 
Dear Sir : 

"The earliest railroad work in this country was done by the West Point Foundry Association to 
which was entrusted the order for railroad wheels for the South Carolina Company, and other work for 
that Company. 

" Knowing that the Era that had opened would require works specially appropriate to the 
construction of the rolling stock up to the locomotives, I obtained authority in the spring of 1830 from 
the South Carolina Railroad Company to seek the works which in position, instrumentalities, and 
preparedness, were in condition to undertake and were willing to undertake what was wanted. 

"The result of inquiries to the end in view led me to call on Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, a 
firm then engaged in the manufacture of machinery for cotton and woolen mills, whose works were at 
Paterson, N. J. 

"At these works I called and asked an interview with Mr. Rogers, the partner having charge of 
all the mechanical operations of the firm. It was without any letter of introduction or any personal 
knowledge of each other. My subject was my introduction, and Mr. Rogers very soon led me to know 
that I had come to the right place and to the right man. 

" At the close of an hour's conversation Mr. Rogers expressed his readiness to enter the new field, 
and to undertake any orders that were entrusted to their firm. The future of ' The Rogers Locomotive 
Works ' was determined at that hour's conversation. 

"The personal and business relations which followed this interview, continued for many years, and 
were to me of the most satisfactory character." 

Yours truly, 

HORATIO AI.I.K.N. 



s 



i 

\ 




THE EARLY HISTORY OF RAILROADS IN THIS COUNTRY. 3 

One of the accompanying engravings represent the works of Rogers, Ketchum 
& Grosvenor, as they were in 1832, and the other shows them as they are in 1886. 

The following advertisement, which first appeared in the American Railroad 
Journal of June 8, 1833, will give an idea of the character of the business of the firm at 
that time 



KAILKOAD CAtt WHEELS ANI> BOXES, 

AND OTHEB, KAILROAD CASTINGS. 

9Sf Also, AXLES furnished and fitted to wheels complete, 
at the Jefferson Cotton and Wool Machine Factory and Foun- 
dry, Paterson, N. J. All orders addressed to the subscribers 
at Piiterson.or 60 Wall street, New- York, will be promptly at- 
tended to, Also, CAR SPRINGS. 

Js ROGERS, KET CHUM & GROSVENOR. 

This advertisement was continued regularly until December 24, 1836. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE EARLY HISTORY OF RAILROADS IN THIS COUN'TRY. 

IN 1833 railroads were already attracting a great deal of attention in this country. 
The opening of the Erie Canal for commercial purposes in 1826, and the consequent 
diversion of traffic from other seaboard cities to New York, led the people of Philadel- 
phia, Baltimore, Boston and Charleston to seek for means by which their lost trade could 
be recovered. Investigation and accurate surveys soon showed the impracticability of 
constructing canals from Baltimore to the Ohio River, or from Boston to the Hudson. 
In the meanwhile information concerning the successful use of steam power on the 
Stockton & Darlington Railroad in England, which was opened in 1825, had reached 
this country, and the public had received the reports of the celebrated experiments with 
locomotives which were made on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway in 1829. As 
Mr. Charles Francis Adams, Jr. has expressed it : * 

"America suffered from too few roads; England from too much traffic. Both were restlessly 
casting about for some form of relief. Accordingly all through the time during which Stephenson was 
fighting the battle of the Locomotive, America, as if in anticipation of his victory, was building rail- 
roads. . . . 

" The country, therefore, was not only ripe to accept the results of the Rainhill contest, but it was 
anticipating them with eager hope." 

After the experiments referred to had been made, full reports giving in detail 
their results, were published in this country, Committees of inquiry were sent to England 

* See Railroads : their Origin and Problems. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \VORKS. 



to get information and report on the railroads of that country, and a railroad mania 
began to pervade the land. 

The first railroad which was built in the United States was a short line of about 
three miles from the Quincy granite quarries to the Neponset river, * for the transporta- 
tion of granite for the Bunker Hill Monument. This was merely a tram road and was 
operated by horse power and stationary engines, and was built in 1826. As Mr. Adams 
says : 

' Properly speaking, however, this was never or at least, never until the year 1871, a railroad 
at all. It was nothing but a specimen of what had been almost from time immemorial in common use 
in England, under the name of ' tramways. ' " 

A similar work was constructed at about the same time for the transportation of 
coal from the pits mouth to the Lehigh Valley Canal near Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

In the latter part of 1827 the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company put the 
Carbondale railroad under construction. This road extends from the head of the Dela- 
ware and Hudson Canal at Honesdale, Pa., to the coal mines 
belonging to the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company at 
Carbondale, a distance of about sixteen miles. This line 
was opened, probably, in 1829, and was operated partly by 
stationary engines, and partly by horses. The line is noted 
chiefly for being the one on which a locomotive was first 
used in this country. This was the Stoiirbridge Lion (Fig. 2,) 
which was built in England under the direction of Mr. 
Fig. 2. Horatio Allen, who had been an assistant engineer on this line. 

"STOUKBRIDGE LlON," 1820. Ti . , . IT . 

It was tried at Honesdale, Pa., in August 1829. 

According to Poor's Railroad Manual for 1876 and 1877: "It was not until 
1828, that the construction of a railroad was undertaken for the transportation both of 
freight and passengers on anything like a comprehensive scale. The construction of 
the Erie Canal had cut off the trade which Philadelphia and Baltimore had hitherto 
received from the West; anil as the project of a canal from the city of Baltimore to 
the Ohio was regarded by many as impracticable, the merchants of that city, in 1827, 
procured the charter of the present Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. On the 4th of July, 
1828, the construction of the railroad was begun, the first act being performed by the 
venerable Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, the only then surviving signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. At the close of the ceremony of breaking ground, Mr. Carroll 
said : 

" I consider this among the most important acts of my life, second only to that of 
signing the Declaration of Independence, if even second to that." 

* It has recently been stated that as early as 1809 an experimental railroad track, 180 feet in length, was 
laid in Delaware County, Pa., and that in the same year a road about a mile long was constructed from stone 
quarries on Crum Creek to a " landing" on Ridley Creek in the same county and state. The evidence upon 
which this statement is based has not been made public. 




THE EARLY HISTORY OF RAILROADS IN THIS COUNTRY. 5 

" In the fall of 1829, the laying of the rails within the City of Baltimore was 
begun. On the 22(1 of May, 1830, the first section of fifteen miles, to Ellicott's Mills, 
was opened. 

"The next important railroad was the South Carolina,* begun in 1830, and 
opened for traffic in 1833 for its whole length (135 miles). At that time, it was the 
longest continuous line of railroad in the world. The construction of the Mohawk &: 
Hudson Railroad, now a part of the New York Central, was begun in 1830. It was 
opened (17 miles) in 1831. The Saratoga & Schenectady Railroad (21^4 miles), was 
opened in the following year; the Paterson & Hudson River Railroad was chartered 
in January, 1831, construction on it was commenced in 1832, and it was opened in 
1834; the Cayuga & Susquehanna (34 miles), connecting the " Susquehanna River with 
the Cayuga Lake, was opened in 1834 ; and the Rensselaer & Saratoga (25 miles) in 
1835. In New Jersey, that portion of the Camden & Amboy, extending from 
Bordentown to Hightstown, (14 miles) was opened on the 22d of December, 1830; and 
between Hightstown and South Amboy (47^2 miles) in 1834. In Pennsylvania 
a considerable extent of line for the transportation of coal had been constructed 
previous to 1835. In 1834 the Philadelphia & Columbia (82 miles) and the 
Portage Railroad (36 miles), both forming a part of the system of public works 
undertaken by the State of Pennsylvania, were opened. The completion of these gave 
that State a continuous line, made up of canal and railroad, from Philadelphia to the 
Ohio River at Pittsburgh. The total mileage of railroad constructed in the State of 
New York up to, and including, 1835, was 265 miles, or more than one-quarter of the 
whole extent of line then in use in the United States. In 1833 the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad was extended as far west as Harper's Ferry (81 miles). In the same 
year the Washington branch (30 miles) was also completed. In Massachusetts, in 
1835, the Boston & Worcester Railroad (44 miles); the Boston & Providence 
(41 miles), and the Boston & Lowell (26 miles) were all opened for business. The 
total mileage in operation in all the States at the close of that year was 1,098 miles." 

The preceding sketch of the early history of railroads, in this country, is given to 
show the extent of railroad construction at the time that Mr. Rogers determined to 
undertake the manufacture of locomotives. 



* The original charter of the South Carolina Railroad was granted Dec. 19, 1827. This was not satis- 
factory to some of the citizens of Charleston, and a new bill was reported to the legislature on Ihe 22d of 
January, 1828 and passed on the 291!) of the same month. The stockholders organized as a company on the 
I2th of May, 1828. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE EARLY HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVES IN THIS COUNTRY. 



IN the latter part of the year 1827, the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company decided 
to have built in England three locomotives, for their line of railroad from Honesdale 
to Carbondale. This action was taken on the report of the Chief Engineer of the road, 
Mr. John B. Jervis, and Mr. Horatio Allen, who had been an engineer on the line, 
went to England and was authorized to have the engines built on plans to be decided by 
him while there. He arrived in England in 1828, and ordered one engine from Foster 
Rastrick & Co., of Stourbridge. This was the Stourbridge Lion, (Fig. 2.). Two other 
engines were ordered from Stephenson & Co., of Newcastle. 

In a pamphlet with the title "The Railroad Era," written by Mr. Allen in 1884, 
he says : 

" The two locomotives from Stephenson that were in New York early in the year 1829, and 
therefore prior to the trial of the locomotive " Rocket " in October of that year, were identical in boiler, 
engines, plan and appurtenances with the " Rocket" (Fig. 3.); and if one of the two engines in hand 
ready to be sent had been the one used on August 9th 1829, the performance of the " Rocket " in 
England would have been anticipated in this country." 

" The three locomotives were received in New York in the winter of 1828 and 1829. One of each 
kind was set up, with the wheels not in contact with the ground, and steam being raised, every opera- 
tion of the locomotive was fully presented except that of onward motion." 




Fig. 3. 

None of these engines were sent to the road for which they were intended, until 
the following spring. The Stourbridge Lion, so far as is known, was the only one which 
was ever placed on the road. It was not tried until August gth 1829, and was then run 
by Horatio Allen, who has the honor of being the first person who ever ran a locomotive 
in America. 

This engine, it was said, was too heavy for the road, and was used only a short 
time. It is a singular fact that it is not now (1886) known what became of the two 
engines, built by Stephenson & Co., and which were in every essential similar to the 
celebrated " Rocket." 



THE EARLY HISTORY OF RAILROADS IN THIS COUNTRY. 7 

In August 1830, Peter Cooper tried his "model of experimental locomotive 
engine," (represented by Fig. 4.) on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. This engine had 
but one working cylinder of 3^ in. diameter, and 14^ in. stroke of piston. The 
engine was tried on August 28th, 1830. In the same year the South Carolina Railroad 
Company contracted with Mr. E. L. Miller, to build a locomotive, which was named 
the Best Friend, for the South Carolina Railroad Company. This engine, (shown by 



n 




Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 



Fig. 5.), was put into service in November 1830, and was the first locomotive ever built 
in America for actual service upon a railroad. 

A locomotive called " The South Carolina," (Fig. 6.), designed by Horatio Allen, 
was built for the South Carolina Railroad by the West Point Foundry Association, in 
the year 1831. The boiler had its fire-box in the middle, with a pair of barrels (four in 
all) extending each way, with a chimney at each end. The engine had eight wheels, 




Fig. e. 

arranged in two trucks, one pair of driving wheels, and one pair of leading wheels 
forming a truck. Each truck had one cylinder which was in the middle of the engine 
and attached to the smoke-box. The driving axle had a crank in the middle to which 
the connecting rod was attached by a ball-joint. The trucks were connected to the 
engine by king-bolts in the usual way. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \\ORKS. 



The " De Witt Clinton," (Fig. 7.) was the third locomotive built by the West 
Point Foundry Association. It was made for the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, and 
was ordered by John B. Jervis, Esq. The first excursion trip with passengers, drawn by 
the De Witt Clinton, was made from Albany to Schenectady, August gth, 1831. 

On January 4th 1831, the Baltimore Ohio Railroad offered the sum of 
$4,000 "for the most approved Engine which shall be delivered for trial upon the road 
on or before the ist of June 1831 and $3,500 for the Engine which shall be 
adjudged the next best." 





Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

Three or four locomotives, amongst them one with a rotary engine, built by Mr. 
Childs of Philadelphia, entered into the competition during the summer of 1831. The 
only one of them, named the "York," which proved equal to the moderate performance 
required of them, was the one built by Messrs. Davis & Gartner, two machinists of 
York, Pa. The engine had a vertical boiler and vertical cylinder; with four coupled 
wheels 30 inches in diameter. It was altered considerably after being placed on the 
road. The Atlantic was afterwards built by the same firm, and was the first of what 
were afterwards known as the grasshopper engines, (Fig. 8,) which were used for many 
years on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 




Fig. 9. 

In August 1831, the locomotive, John Bull, (Fig. 9.) built by George & Robert 
Stephenson & Co., of Newcastle upon Tyne, was received in Philadelphia for the Camden 
& Amboy Railroad &: Transportation Company. This is the old engine which was 
exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. In the winter of 1831 
or 1832, three locomotives built by the same firm in England were received and were 
put to work on the Newcastle & Frcnchtown Railroad in Delaware. 



THE EARLY HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVES IN THIS COUNTRY. 



The third edition of Wood's Treatise on Railways, published in 1838, contains a 
tabular statement which gives the names and dimensions of engines built by R. Stephen- 
son & Co., Newcastle upon Tyne, and the names of the railways for which they were 
built. This table contains the names of the following locomotives for American 
roads : 

Delaware, for Newcastle & Frenchtown Railroad. 

Maryland, " " 

Pennsylvania, " " 

No. 42, for Saratoga & Schenectady Railroad. 

H. and Mohawk, for Mohawk & Hudson Railroad. 

Stevens, for New York. 

No. 52, for United States. 

Edgefield, for Charleston & Columbia Railroad. 

Brother Jonathan, for Mohawk &: Hudson Railroad. 

No. 61, 

for Saratoga & Schenectady Railroad. 
Charleston & Columbia " 



No. 75, 
Win. Aikin, 
No. 99, 
No. 104, 
No. 105, 
No. 106, 



Pennsylvania 




Columbia 

No dates are given in the table, but all of these sixteen engines must have been built 
before 1838. Most of them were probably of what was known as the " Planet" class 
shown by Fig. 10., which is the form of engine, 
that succeeded the " Rocket," and the only one 
which the Stephensons built for some years after 
its adoption. These locomotives which were im- 
ported from England, doubtless, to a very con- 
siderable extent, furnished the types and patterns 
from which the engines which were afterwards 
built here, were fashioned. But American designs 
very soon began to depart from their British proto- 
types and a process of adaptation to the existing 
conditions of the railroads in this country followed, which afterwards " differentiated " the 
American locomotives more and more from those built in Great Britain. Until recently 
a marked feature of difference between American and English locomotives has been the use 
of the truck, under the former. Its use was proposed by Mr. Horatio Allen, in a report dated 
May 16, 1831, which he made to the South Carolina Canal & Railroad Company, of which 
he was then the chief engineer. The locomotive with two trucks, shown by Fig. 6., 
was built from his design in the latter part of 1831, and was put into operation on the 
South Carolina Railroad in the early part of 1832. In the latter part of the year 1831 
the late John B. Jervis invented what he called " a new plan of frame, with a bearing 
carriage, for a locomotive engine, for the use of the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, 



Fig. 10. 



IO 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



represented by Fig. n, which was constructed and put on the road in the season of 
1832." 

A truck was also devised by Ross Winans and applied to a locomotive on the 
Baltimore & Susquehanna Railroad (now the Northern Central) in the latter part of 
1832. In a letter published in the American Railroad Journal -of July 27, 1833, 
Mr. Jervis describes the objects aimed at in the use of the truck as follows : 

" The leading objects I had in view, in the general arrangement of the plan of the engine, did not 
contemplate any improvement in the power over those heretofore constructed by Stephenson & Co.;* 
but to make an engine that would be better adapted to railroads of less strength than are common in 
England; that would travel with more ease to itself and to the rail on curved roads; that would be less 
effected by inequalities of the rail, than is attained by the arrangement in the most approved engines." 




Fig. I I. 

The effectiveness of the truck in accomplishing what it was intended for was sit 
once recognized, and its almost general adoption on American locomotives followed. 

In the year 1833, Judge Dickerson, then President of the Paterson & Hudson 
River Railroad, ordered a locomotive, which was called the " McNeill," from George 
Stephenson, which was to be as good as possible without regard to cost. It arrived, 
and was put in operation in the year 1834. The cylinders were 9 inches diameter by 18 
inches stroke, and the engine had one pair of driving wheels five feet in diameter, which 
were behind the fire-box. The axle was cranked, and the cranks were close to the 
wheels ; there was room for the connecting rods to pass by the outside of the furnace. 
The front end was supported by a four-wheeled truck ; the fire-box and tubes were of 
copper. The engine continued in use many years, and was said to be very fast and \v;is 
finally sold to a western railroad, the business of the Paterson & Hudson River Rail- 
road, having grown beyond the engine's capacity. 

There may have been other English engines, of which there is no record, 
imported into this country about this time, but, as already stated, there is no doubt that 
to a very considerable extent the English engines were the models from which American 
designers received many suggestions ; but, as will be shown, they very soon began to 
depart from the original types, and the development of the locomotive here was quite 
distinct from that which it had in Europe. 

* The truck was applied by Mr. Jervis to an engine built by Stephenson & Co., of England, 



HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING. 



CHAPTER IV. 

HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING AT THE ROGERS LOCOMO- 
TIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 

j~)REPARATION for locomotive building in Paterson had been made as early as 
[ 1833 by Messrs. Paul & Beggs, in their shop near that of Mr. Rogers. They 
had a small engine nearly completed when their building took fire and was consumed, 
and the locomotive destroyed. 

In 1835 some buildings were begun by Messrs. Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, 
with a view to the manufacture of locomotives. The following notice and advertise- 
ment, which appeared in the American Railroad Journal of Dec. 24, 1836, will give an 
idea of- the character of the business of the firm at that time : 

AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVES. 

" By the following advertisement we learn and it affords us pleasure to call to it the attention of 
our readers interested in railroads that Messrs. Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, of Paterson, New 
Jersey, have added to their extensive machine shops one for Locomotive Engines. 

" We have more than once enjoyed the pleasure of a visit to their works, where we found ample 
evidence of the truth of a remark often made by us, that ' to whatever branch of manufacture our 
countrymen turn their attention they are sure to excel,' and so, we doubt not, it will be in this new 
branch of business undertaken by this enterprising house, and we hope soon to learn that their skill in 
this branch has been as successful as in others. 

" In a few years we shall not see an imported Locomotive on an American Railroad." 

The following is the advertisement referred to : 



MACHINE WORKS OP KOGERS, 

KETCHUM AND GROSVENOR, Paterson, New- 
Jersey. The undersigned receive orders for the fol- 
lowing articles, mamilactured by them, of the most 
superior description in every particular. Their works 
being extensive, and the number of handg employed 
being large, they are enabled to execute both large 
and small orders with promptness and despatch. 

RAILROAD WORK. 

Locomotive Steam-Engines and Tenders ; Driv- 
ing and other Locomotive Wheels, Axles, Springs and 
Flange Tiros ; Car Wheels of cast iron, from a va- 
riety of patterns, and Chills ; Car Wheels of cast iron, 
with wrought Tires; Axles of best American refined 
iron ; Springs ; Boxes and Bolts for Cars. 

COTTON WOOL AND FLAX MACHINERY, 

Of all descriptions and of the most improved Pat- 
terns, Style and Workmanship. 

Mill Geering and Millwright work generally; Hy- 
draulic and other Presses; Press Screws; Callen- 
ders; Lathrs and Tools of all kinds, Iron and Brass 
Castings of all descriptions. 

ROGERS, KETCHUM & GROSVENOR 
Paterson, New-Jersey, or 60 Wall street, N. Y. 

51 tf 



12 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




The first locomotive, the Sandusky, Fig. 12, which the firm built, was not 
completed until 1837. It was intended for the New Jersey Railroad & Transportation 
Company. The engine was 4 ft. 10 in. gauge, the same as that of the line for which it 
was built. It had cylinders n in. diameter by 16 in. stroke, with one pair of driving 
wheels of 4 ft. 6 in. diameter, which were placed in front of the fire-box. The engine 

had a truck in front with four 30 in. 
wheels. The cylinders were inside 
the frames and were connected to a 
crank axle of the form shown in 
Fig. 13. The eccentrics were out 
side of the frame, and the eccentric 
rods extended back to rocking shafts 
which were located under the foot- 
board. The smoke pipe was of the 
g ' I2< bonnet kind, and had a deflecting 

cone in its centre. The edges of the cone were curled over so as to deflect the sparks 
downward, and thus prevent their passing through the wire bonnet, as well as preventing 
the bonnets from wearing out too fast. 

The driving wheels of the engine were made of cast iron, with hollow spokes and 

rim, which at the time was a re- 
markable novelty. The section of 
the spokes was of an oval form and 

1 P^l I tne r ' m ^ ver y much the same 
shape as that which is in common 
use at the present time. This kind 
of driving wheel has since come into 
g> almost universal use in this country. 

Another important improvement adopted by Mr. Rogers in the construction of 
this engine, was the counterbalancing the weight of the crank, connecting rods and 
piston. For this he filed a specification in the Patent Office, dated July 12, 1837. It is 
described as follows in the specification : 

"The nature of my improvement consists in providing the section of the wheel opposite to the 
crank with sufficient weight to counterbalance the crank and connecting-rods, making the resistance of 
the engine less in Stirling, and in running; also, preventing the irregularity of motion caused hy that 
side of the wheels when the cranks are placed in the usual mode of fitting them up. The irregular 
motion which arises from not having the cranks and connecting-rods balanced, is attended with much 
injury to the engine, and to the road, and with much loss of power.'* 

In order to counterbalance the weight of the parts referred to, the rim of the 
wheel opposite the crank was cast solid, while the other part of it was made hollow. 
The importance of counterbalancing was not recognized until several years after it had 
been introduced by Mr. Rogers, and, when attention was drawn to it, many doubted the 
necessity of balancing anything more than the cranks. 




THE HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING. 13 

The trial trip of the Sandusky was made from Paterson to Jersey City and New 
Brunswick and back on the 6th of October, 1837, Mr. Timothy Smith acting as engi- 
neer. The performance of the engine was entirely satisfactory; the gauge of the road 
was 4 ft. 10 in., the same as that of the New Jersey Railroad & Transportation Com- 
pany, for which road the engine was intended. It was, however, bought for the Mad 
River & Lake Erie Railroad by its President, Mr. J. H. James, of Urbana, Ohio, and 
on the 1 4th, it was shipped via Canal and Lake, in charge of Mr. Thomas Hogg, in the* 
schooner " Sandusky." Mr. Hogg had worked upon it from the commencement. It 
arrived at Sandusky, Nov. 17, 1837, at which time not a foot of track had been laid. 
The road was built to suit the gauge of the engine, and the Legislature of Ohio passed 
an Act requiring all roads built in that State to be of 4 ft. 10 in. gauge, the same as the 
engine Sandusky. 

The engine was used in the construction of the road until the nth of April, 1838, 
when regular trips for the conveyance of passengers commenced between Belleview and 
Sandusky, a distance of 16 miles. 

The engineer was Thomas Hogg, who ran the engine for three years, keeping it 
in repair. It continued in service many years, until engines of larger size were required 
to do the work. 

The second locomotive built by Mr. Rogers was called the " Arresseoh No. 2." 
It was completed in February 1838 for the New Jersey Railroad & Transportation 
Company. It was similar in design to the " Sandusky." 

The third engine was named the " Clinton " and was built for the Lockport & 
Niagara Falls Railroad Company, and was delivered to it in April 1838. It differed 
from the first engines in having cylinders which were 10 in. in diameter and 18 in. stroke 
and the gauge was 4 ft. 8^4 i"- Both the driving and the truck wheels of this engine 
had hollow oval spokes and hollow rims with wrought iron tires. This engine \vas run 
by Wm. E. Cooper until November 1843, when it was sold to the Toledo & Adrian 
Railroad for $6,500, the original cost. It was said by Mr. Cooper that when the engine 
was sold it was considered to be one of the best working engines in existence. 

An engine called the "Experiment," was the next, or the fourth locomotive turned 
out. It was made for the South Carolina Railroad, and was delivered in June 1838. 
This engine differed from those previously built at these works, in having a smaller 
cylinder and longer stroke than usual. 

The Sandusky was the type of the first four locomotives built by Messrs. Rogers, 
Ketchum & Grosvenor. In many respects they all resembled the Stephenson engines. 
They had inside cylinders and a crank-axle but differed from English locomotives chiefly 
in having a truck instead of a pair of leading wheels. The driving axles were in front of 
the fire-boxes, with the result that the overhang of the latter behind the axle brought an 
undue proportion of the weight of the engine on these axles. 

To remedy the evil of an excessive amount of weight on the driving axle the 



THE ROC.KKS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




Fig. 14. 



latter was placed behind the fire-box in the fifth engine, called the " Batavia," Fig. 14, built 
at these works. When this was done, however, there was too little load on the driving 
wheels, and an arrangement was provided for transferring part of the weight of the tender 
to them. The Batavia was built for the Tonawancla Railroad, and was completed in 1838. 

The shape of the furnace, in plan, 
was semi-circular at the rear part, 
and it had a hemispherical top sur- 
mounted with a dome. This form 
of fire-box was used as late as 1857. 
In his early engines, besides 
using inside cylinders Mr. Rogers 
also followed the plan which is still 
used in England, viz : putting the 
cranks for parallel or coupling rods 
opposite to the main cranks. He soon found that this arrangement, while it had some 
advantages, such as requiring less counterbalance, caused the journals of the driving 
axles to wear oval ; he therefore adopted the plan of putting the cranks for both main 
and outside rods on the same side of the centre of the axle. 

The "state of the art" of locomotive building in this country in its infancy is 
graphically described in the following articles, which appeared in the American Railroad 
Journal and Mechanic's Magazine of Dec. 15, 1839. In one of these the editor said : 

" A few days ago, in company with one of the proprietors, we had the pleasure of a visit to, and 
inspection of the very extensive works of Messrs. Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvcnor, at Paterson, New 
Jersey, for the construction of various kinds of machinery. Our attention was, of course, principally 
directed to the shops for the construction of locomotives, the main building of which is 200 feet long 
and three stories high, and another of equal length containing near 50 forges, most of which were in 
operation, notwithstanding the pressure of the times. 

" We saw a number of engines in different states of forwardness, and though the general forms 
are those of 6-wheeled American Engines in general, we were not a little gratified with several minor 
arrangements, new to us at least, which have been introduced by Mr. Rogers, and to which we shall 
briefly refer. 

" The wire gauze of the smoke pipe is protected by an inverted cone, placed in the axis of the 
pipe, a few inches below the wire gauze. The base of the cone is curled over so as to scatter the sparks 
over a large portion of the surface of the wire cloth, and to prevent the top of the spark-catcher from 
being burnt out before the rest of the wire cloth is materially injured; it also tends to throw the larger 
sparks down between the pipe and the casing, and will do something towards diminishing this standing 
reproach. 

" The truck frames, whether of wood or iron, were admirably stiffened by diagonal braces, and 
where the crank axle is used, the large frame is very strongly plated in the manner of Stephenson's 
engines, the neglect of which till very lately has been, we are informed, a constant objection to the 
Philadelphia engines on the Long Island and Troy railroads. 

" The wheels are of cast iron, with wrought iron tires ; the spokes are round, and they, as well as 
the rims, are hollow, except where the crank axle is used, when the rims are cast solid on one side so 
as to counterbalance the cranks. 

"Our readers will probably remember an article on this subject in the Journal, Nos. 7 and S, 
page 244 of the present volume, on " side motion or rocking,' 1 by G. Heaton, where its success on the 
Birmingham railroad has been complete. 



THE HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING. 15 

" Mr. Rogers balanced his first engine wheels two and a half years since, and entered a specifi- 
cation, not with the intention of taking out a patent, but to prevent anyone else from doing so ; and 
thus deprive the community of the benefit which Mr. Rogers was desirious of conferring, and which 
we understand other makers are now availing themselves of. Tha advantages are fully explained in the 
article referred to. 

" When the crank axle is used, the eccentric rods and the cranks of the rockshafts are placed on 
the outside, where they are easily got at, and where they are not crowded into the smallest possible 
space, as with the ordinary arrangement. For this, also, a specification was entered with the same 
object as in the preceding case. 

" But we were most pleased with the arrangement of levers to which the eccentric rods are 
fastened, and thus the reversing depends on no contingency, for the rods are forced in and out of gear; 
a single handle only is required to manage the engine much more rapidly and efficiently than by the 
ordinary mode. The boilers are 8 ft. long for an 8-ton engine, and with 120 flues, the usual length of 
the former being, we believe, 7 ft., and the number of the latter about 80 or 90; by this deviation the 
area of heating surface is increased, and the heat remains longer in contact with the flues, while the 
addition to the weight is very trifling compared with the advantages derived from the saving of fuel. 

' Mr. Baldwin, of Philadelphia, took out a patent some time since for a very ingenious mode of 
saving half the crank, by inserting the wrists into one of the spokes of the driving wheels, and this has 
been very closely imitated by making one complete crank, and by letting one-half of it into a spoke 
which is cast larger than the others, with a receptacle for the purpose. This latter plan has been 
adopted by Mr. Rogers and others in this neighborhood, whilst the Boston machinists aim at bringing 
the two cranks as near together as possible. The relative merits of straight and cranked axles 
are so well pointed out in Mr. Wood's papers on locomotives in these numbers, that we shall merely 
beg leave to state that the plan of Mr. Baldwin and its imitation, appear to us to combine the liability 
to fracture of the crank axle with the loss of heat, the exposure to accident, and the racking of frame 
and road ascribed to the straight axle ; for the only difference is the thickness of the spoke, the loss of 
heat is the same in both, the protection Against any serious accident is too trifling to be considered, 
whilst, with the cranks as close together as possible, the cylinders are completely protected. 

"We offer these remarks as our views merely, and with all due deference to the superior skill of 
Messrs. Baldwin and Rogers. Mr. Rogers, in common with all other experienced machinists with 
whom we have conversed, is decidedly opposed to any increase of width of track beyond 5 ft., with the 
present weight of engine. 

" As regards the power of the engines, they are able to slip the wheels when the rails are in the 
best state : this they do in common with all good American or English engines, consequently any 
accounts of extraordinary performance would be worse than superfluous, when we know that they will 
do all that any other engine whatever, with the same weight on the driving wheels, possibly can do. 

" As a last remark, we would observe, that there is more finish on the engines of Messrs. Rogers, 
Ketchum & Grosvenor than we are in the habit of seeing; some parts usually painted black being highly 
polished. On the whole we consider their new establishment eminently calculated to add to the reputa- 
tion of American Locomotives, as it has for many years largely contributed to the character of 
American machinery for the manufacture of cotton and other objects." 



AN EXTRAORDINARY FP^AT. 

In the same number of the same journal, is the following letter which still further 
elucidated the subject : 

"GENTLEMEN ; As you seem to take a deep interest in the success of American locomotives, I 
will give you a statement for your gratification, in relation to a performance on the New Jersey Rail- 
road a few days since. 

"Owing to some circumstanoes, of which I am not informed, it became necessary for a locomotive 
on the way from Jersey City to New Brunswick, to take, in addition to its own load, the cars 
attached to another engine, which made the number equal to 24 loaded four-wheeled cars, and with as 
much apparent ease as could be desired, notwithstanding the grade for four miles is equal to 26 ft. per 
mile, stopping on the grade to take in passengers, and starting again with the greatest ease. The average 



16 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \\ORKS. 



speed on the grade was 24^ miles per hour. This may not be in your estimation anything extra- 
ordinary, yet I consider it a performance worth recording, by way of contrast with the greatest and 
most extraordinary performance of a locomotive ever heard of in these days, which occurred on the 
Liverpool & Manchester Railroad in 1829, only ten years ago. Twenty tons on a level road at the 
rale of ten miles per hour, was then considered wonderful! Astonishing! Even in a country famed for 
its extraordinary discoveries; yet here, only ten years after, we see an engine built in this country too, 
taking a load probably equal, cars and tender included, to 120 or iSo tons at the rate of 24^2 miles per 
hour, up a grade of 26 ft. per mile. This engine was built, I understand, at 1'aterson, New Jersey, 
by Messrs. Rogers, Ketchum it drosvenor, a concern not yet so well known to this railroad community 
as manufacturers of locomotives as they ought to be, or as they soon will be, if they continue to turn out 
such machines as the one above alluded to. 

''If such have been the improvements in the past, what may they not be, permit me to ask, in the 
next ten years ? 

" Pardon me for thus troubling you, but my aim is rather to call attention to the rapid march ot 
improvement in this mode of communication, than to direct attention to any individual or company, 
although those gentlemen, in my opinion, deserve as manutacturers, much more than I have said of 
them. 

" Yours truly, 
NEWARK, N. J., December 14, 1839. "JKKSKV IJi.rii." 

Soon after he commenced building locomotives Mr. Rogers became convinced 
that inside connected engines, with crank axles, were inferior in many respects to outside 
connected ones, besides being more expensive to build and to keep in repair; he also 
became satisfied that in the matter of steadiness, the inside-connected had no advantage 
over the outside-connected engine, and that, with proper counter-balancing, the latter 
could be run as fast as required without any injurious oscillation; and also, that it 
required more skill to properly counterbalance inside connected engines than outside 
ones. Therefore, he was an earnest advocate of this style of engine, and recommended 
outside-connected engines as better than inside-connected ones. 

Fig. 15 represents the " Stock bridge," built in 1842, with outside cylinders. In 
this engine the driving axle was placed in front of the fire-box and a pair of trailing 
wheels behind to carry the overhanging weight. The load on the driving wheels was ol 
course reduced by an amount equal to that carried by the trailing wheels, so that this 
type of engine was also deficient in adhesion and power. 





Fig. 15. Fig. 16. 

The next step which was made was to substitute a pair of driving wheels for the 
trailing wheels, and couple them with the main driving wheels. This form of engine, 
shown by Fig. 16, was patented in 1836 by Henry R. Campbell, of Philadelphia, and 



THE HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING. 



was adopted by Mr. Rogers in 1844. This plan has since been so generally adopted in 
this country that it is now known as the " American" type. Fig. 17 represents an engine 
of this kind built at the Rogers Works in 1844. It had four coupled driving wheels and 
outside cylinders, the eccentrics were on the back axle, the pumps were full stroke, 
worked from the cross-heads. It had springs over the back axle bearings, and also in 
the centre of the levers which extended from the driving axle to the centre of the truck on 
each side of the engine. The truck was pivoted and turned upon a centre pin fixed to 





Fig. 17. Fig. 18. 

the boiler; the arrangement did not give satisfaction, and was altered after a short trial. 
This engine was remarkable from the fact that it is the first example of the use of an 
equalizing beam between the driving wheels and truck. 

The engine shown by Fig. 18 was built in 1845, and had equalizing levers 
between the driving wheel springs; the truck had side bearings and springs over the 
sides of truck ; the pumps had short stroke and were worked from the cross-head as 
shown. 




Fig. 19. 

Fig. 19 shows an engine built in 1846 with the driving wheels spread well apart. 
It had V hooks and independent cut-off on the back of the main valves; this was a 
favorite kind of engine for many years. 

In 1848 Mr. Rogers was requested to furnish some engines with six coupled 
wheels for the Savanilla Railroad in Cuba. He then designed and built the first ten 
wheeled engines ever made at the Rogers Works. There is no drawing of these engines 
extant. They had, however, outside cylinders 15^ in. diameter by 20 in. stroke. The 



1 8' 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




ten-wheeled engines, which had been built previous to this time, had inside cylinders and 
crank axles. The connecting rods of the engines for the Savanilla Railroad were made 
to take hold of the outside journal of the main crank pin, which at that time was a new 
departure. 

Fig. 20 represents a plan of ten-wheeled engine, with half-crank keyed on the 

driving wheel, same as Baldwin's 
plan. This pattern of engine was 
built in 1848 after those for the 
Savanilla Railroad. The engine had 
6utside bearings and equalizing lev- 
ers between the spring's ; it also had 
cranks on the axles outside the 
frames to which the coupling rods 
Fig. 2O. were attached. A number of engines 

on this plan, with cylinders 17X22, was built for the New York & Erie Railroad. They 

all had independent cut-off valves. 

Fig. 21 represents an inside cylinder engine with full crank; the steam chests were 

inclined sidewise, so that the valves 
could be readily got at. This was 
one of the improvements introduced 
by Thomas Rogers. The engine had 
V hooks and independent cut-off valves, 
and was built for the Paterson & Hud- 
son River Railroad. 

On the style of engine shown by Fig. 
22, the shifting link motion was intro- 
duced. Thomas Rogers was one of 




Fig. 21. 



its earliest advocates, and did more towards its successful introduction on American 

locomotives than any other 
person. He was not only 
an early, but an earnest 
advocate of it, at a time 
when it was condemned by 
some of the most promi- 
nent engineers in the coun- 
try. Time has amply proved 



all that he claimed for it, 
which was that it is the 




Fig. 22. 

most simple and efficient form of valve gear that has ever been devised. 



THE HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING. 



Fig. 23 represents a style of passenger engine which was first built in 1852. It 
had 15X22 in. cylinder driving wheels 5 ft. in diameter. It had what may be called 




Fig. 23. 

supplementary outside frames, which carried the running board, cab, &c. It had shifting 
links, hung from below, and the truck axles had both inside and outside bearings. 

The form of engine represented by Fig. 24, was first built in 1853, and was for a 




Fig. 24. 

long time very popular. Many railroads in the country were equipped with them. The 
cylinders were 16x22 in. and the driving wheels 5 ft. diameter, although the size of the 
latter was varied somewhat in different engines. 




Fig. 25. 

Fig. 25 represents a six-wheeled coupled engine built in 1854. The following 
report of its performance was published in the American Railway Times in 1859 : 



20 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



"The engine ' Vulcan,' of the Buffalo <fc State Line Railway, came out of the shop after a general 
overhauling, on the 151!! of December, 1856, and made 15 trips of 90 miles each, 1,350 miles, and 
hauling 435 cars in that month. 

" In the year 1857, this engine made 312 trips of 90 miles each, hauling 8,509 cars ; in the year 
1858, this engine made 290 trips, hauling 9,351 cars." 

On the death of Mr. Thomas Rogers, which occurred in 1856, the business there- 
tofore conducted by Rogers, Ketch u in & Grosvenor was re-organi/,ed under a charter, 
.with the title of The Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, and Mr. William S. Hudson 
was then appointed Superintendent. He was a prolific inventor and an excellent 
mechanic, and introduced many improvements in locomotive construction, which will 
be described further on. 

The first " Mogul " engine, Fig. 26, built at the Rogers Works, was completed in 
1863. This plan of locomotive was made possible by the invention of the llissell truck 
and the addition of the swing links to it by A. V. Smith, both of which will be described 
in another chapter. With a single axle truck in front of the cylinder, the front driving 




Fig. 26. 

wheels can be placed farther forward than they can be on a ten-wheeled engine with a 
four-wheeled truck, one axle of which is in front, and another behind the cylinders. 
Consequently Mogul engines have a larger proportion of their weight on the driving 
wheels than ten-wheeled engines have, and this has brought the Moguls in favor for 
freight service.* 

The demand for more powerful locomotives naturally suggested coupling four 
pairs of wheels and led to the " consolidation " type, which has eight driving wheels 
coupled, and a pony truck in front of the cylinders. In 1880 the first consolidation 
engine built at the Rogers Works was completed, and was substantially like that shown 
by plate VI. 

The types of engines which have been described, are the principal ones which 
have been evolved in this country for ordinary freight and passenger service. Besides 

* A plan shown in Plate X was designed for a ten-wheeled engine at the Rogers Locomotive Works 
willi a four-wheeled truck in front of the cylinder. The order for these engines was however, ultimately given 
to another establishment. In this design it was aimed to secure all the advantages of both the ten-wheeled and 
Mogul plans. 



r : ! 

. -. . . - : : 



THE HISTORY OF LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING. 21 

these there lias been a demand for locomotives for special service, such as switching, 
urban and suburban traffic, and for narrow guage railroads ; the narrowness of which 
made it essential to design special methods of construction. 

The most common plan used for switching engines is that shown in Plate XIII, 
which has four coupled wheels, both axles being placed between the furnace and smoke- 
box. Separate tenders are furnished with locomotives of this kind, or the tanks may be 
placed on top of the boilers as shown in Plate XV. 

When more powerful engines are required, six coupled wheels are used with the 
axles all between the furnace and smoke-box, as in Fig. 25 and Plates XIV and XVI. 
Some six coupled engines have been built with an axle behind the fire-box, but with this 
arrangement the overhanging weight of cylinder, smoke-box, &c., bring an undue 
amount of weight on the front pair of wheels. 

The advantage of locating the driving axles between the furnace and smoke-box, 
is that the overhanging weight of the furnace behind, balances that of the cylinders, 
smoke-box, &c., in front, and in this way the driving wheels carry the whole weight of 
the engine and it is equally distributed on them. Placing the water tank on top of the 
boiler is inconvenient and unsightly, and when in that position it is difficult to get room 
enough for an adequate supply of water, and there is also the disadvantage of a varying 
load on the driving wheels, which may be excessive with the tank full, and insufficient 
when it is empty. For these reasons Mr. Hudson, after he became Superintendent of 
the Rogers Works, turned his attention to devising methods of construction which would 
retain all the advantages of the arrangement of axles described, but which would at the 
same time give a longer wheel base for steadiness, but with sufficient flexibility to enable 
the engine to run round sharp curves easily. The requirements of suburban and other 
traffic, in which engines must make short runs, had also created a demand for locomo- 
tives which could be conveniently and safely run both ways, and which would not require 
to be turned around at the end of each journey. Having these objects in view, Mr. 
Hudson, in 1867, designed and patented the plan of tank locomotive represented by 
Plate XVII, which soon became known as Hudson's " Double Ender." In this the two 
driving axles were placed between the furnace and smoke-box, and a Bissell truck was 
placed at each end of the engine. Mr. Hudson's patent was dated May 7, 1867, and 
was re-issued December 7, 1875. 

It will be seen that the water tank of these engines was on top of the boiler. 
This arrangement was open to the objections which have been pointed out. To over- 
come these Mr. Hudson, in 1872, designed and patented the plan of engine represented 
by Plate XVIII. In this the arrangement of the driving axles and the front truck, 
excepting the equalizing arrangements, are the same as that of the " Double Ender" plan, 
but instead a two-wheeled Bissell truck behind, a four-wheeled swing motion truck was 
substituted, and the water tank instead of being placed on top of the boiler, was placed 
over the four-wheeled truck. This arrangement was patented July 16, 1872. 

In 1866, Mr. M. N. Forney patented the plan embodied in the engine shown in 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 

Plate XX. A number of engines of that kind have been built at the Rogers 
Locomotive Works for various roads. Whether a leading truck is essential for engines of 
this class has been a subject of a good deal of controversy among railroad engineers. 
To reconcile the views of the various parties to this dispute, the Rogers Works build 
locomotives either with or without the leading truck, as required, leaving to the pur- 
chaser and user the task of determining whether a leading truck is useful or not. 

In 1872 Mr. Hudson took out seven patents for different plans of tank engines 
with trucks at each end. In all of them his system of equalizing levers between the 
trucks and driving wheels springs, which is described in another chapter, was used, and 
his patents were chiefly for various applications of that system. 

Plate XXIII represents an engine built in accordance with one of his patents. 
It was built for a narrow guage road, and in order to get as wide a fire-box as possible 
the frames were made as shown by Figs. 180 and 181 and described on page 62. 

He also patented in 1873 a plan for a compound locomotive. This had two out- 
side cylinders in the usual position, the one being of larger diameter than the other. It 
was intended that ordinarily live steam from the boiler should be admitted to the small 
cylinder only, from which it exhausted into a super-heater in the smoke-box before it 
passed into the large cylinder on the opposite side. The steam pipe was connected with 
the steam chest of the large cylinder by another pipe of smaller diameter. Live steam 
could be admitted by the small pipe to the large cylinder if required. This plan was 
never put into practice. 

Mr. Hudson's death occurred on the 2oth of July, 1881. He was then 72 years 
old. 

The following extracts are taken from an account of his life, which appeared in 
the Railroad Gazette immediately after his death : 

" He was born near the town of Derby, England, in 1809, and at an early age began to learn 
the trade of an engineer and machinist, serving part of his apprenticeship under George Stephenson. 
In 1833, when 24 years of age, he came to this country, and for a time found work in the engine room 
and machine shops attached to the Auburn State Prison in New York. He soon left that place, however, 
and engaged as a locomotive runner on the old Rochester <fe Auburn Railroad, now a portion of the New 
York Central. Subsequently he ran an engine on the Attica & Buffalo Railroad, and was made Master 
Mechanic of the road, which he left in 1852 to become Superintendent of the Locomotive Works of 
Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor, at Paterson, N. J. In 1856 these works were incorporated as the 
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, and Mr. Hudson was made Mechanical Engineer and Super- 
intendent, a position which he held until his death. He succeeded Mr. Thomas Rogers, who was the 
founder of these works, and who probably did more than any other man to develop the design and 
improve the construction of the American Locomotive as it is to-day. But Mr. Hudson took up the 
work where Mr. Rogers left it, and during the 30 years that Mr. Hudson occupied the position of the 
head of the mechanical department of this establishment, he made many improvements in the locomotives 
built there, chiefly of a kind which are the result of simplifying details, adopting better methods of 
putting work together, and making the engines more substantial and more serviceable. He studied, as 
probably no other locomotive builder did the performance of the engines he built. He was constantly 
looking out for their weak points, and it was said by the present head ot the establishment that Mr. 
Hudson was always more concerned about building a good engine than he was in making a good profit." 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 23 



The business of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works is now conducted by 
Mr. J. S. Rogers, the President of the Company, who is a son of the founder of the 
establishment. 



CHAPTER V. 
THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

DURING the period of fifty years that has elapsed since Mr. Rogers first commenced 
to build locomotives in Paterson, not only has the machine as a whole been going 
through a process of evolution, as described in preceding chapters, but there has also 
been a development or adaptation of its various parts or organs, as they may be called, 
to the functions which they have to perform. A description of the different forms 
and methods of construction of these organs, which were adopted and in use at various 
times, will therefore become a sort of comparative anatomy of American locomotives. 
This may conveniently be divided into three parts, one relating to the boiler, another 
to the engines, and a third to the carriage or running gear. These will be taken up in 
succession. 

THE BOILER. 

The boiler of the Sandusky, the first engine built by Messrs. Rogers, Ketchum 
& Grosvenor, was substantially the same as that of the Stephenson engines, of what is 
known as the " Planet " class, that is the top of the furnace was semi-cylindrical in form 
and flush or nearly flush, with the top of the barrel of the boiler. The horizontal section 
of the fire-box below the barrel of the boiler was square or nearly so. 

In 1837 Mr. Bury was made locomotive Superintendent of the London & 
Birmingham Railway in England, which gave him an opportunity of adopting extensively 
on that line a class of engines, the original of which he introduced on the Liverpool & 
Manchester Railway in 1830. These were four-wheeled engines with inside cylinders, 
not unlike Stephenson's in their general plan, but the tops of the furnaces instead of being 
semi-cylindrical were hemispherical, and the horizontal section of the fire box, below the 
waist of boiler, was of a form approximating to the letter D. the flat part being in front. 
This form of fire-box was adopted in the fifth engine built at the Rogers Works, and it 
was in continuous use until 1857, and is shown in Figs. 14 to 22. 

A large proportion of the early locomotives built in this country were built to 
burn wood. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was perhaps the only pioneer road that 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



commenced by using coal for fuel, and even on that line many locomotives burned wood. 
As the weight of locomotives was increased and coal was substituted for wood, larger 
fire-boxes were required, and this led to the abandonment of the hemispherical topped 
furnace, which was not well adapted to fire boxes whose length was materially greater 
than their width, and the semi-cylindrical form which was first used, was substituted in 
its place. In these the crown sheets were usually stayed with crown-bars placed either 
lengthwise or crosswise on top of the fire-box. 



Fig. 27. 



Fig. 28. 




Fig. 29. 

At first the cylindrical tops of the furnaces were made flush with the tops of the 
barrels of the boilers, but this form was succeeded by Avhat is known as the " wagon top" 
form of boiler, which was first used in the Rogers Works in 1850. The tops of the 
furnaces, in boilers of this kind, were also semi-cylindrical, but they were made con- 
siderably higher than the barrels of the boilers as shown in Figs. 23 to 26. The exact 
reason for first adopting this form of boiler is not known, but it had the advantage of 
giving more steam room, and allowed the use of more tubes and consequently more 
heating surface than could be used in a flush topped boiler. The wagon top also gives 
more room for workmen on the inside of the boiler, over the crown sheets, and it thus 
facilitates construction and repairs. Mr. Hudson was always a strong advocate of this 
form, and he gave especial attention to staying it, as is shown in Figs. 27, 28, and 29, in 
which the stays and braces are shown. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



For burning anthracite coal, it was found that very long fire-boxes were required. 
In 1860 the form shown in Figs. 30 and 31 was built at the Rogers Works from the 




Fig. 30. Fig. 31. 

design of Mr. Millholland, of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad. The top of this 




Fig. 32. 

furnace sloped downward from the barrel of the boiler, and the crown sheet was stayed 
with screw stays, excepting for a short dis- 
tance behind the tube plate. Water grates 
were used in this fire-box and are shown in 
the engraving. 

In 1 86 1 some fire-boxes with long com- 
bustion chambers and a water bridge, as 
shown in Fig. 32, were constructed for the 
New Jersey Railroad & Transportation Co. 

In 1862 a fire-box with the water leg 
A, Figs. 33 and 34 was made for the Chicago, 
Burlington, & Quincy Railroad. 





J8W8W* 

oSoXoRoxoRo 



Fig. 33. 



Fig. 34. 



26 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



The brick arch, Figs. 35 and 36, was used in 1865. 




Fig. 35. Fig. 36. 

In 1871 some engines were built for the Cumberland Valley Railroad, with the 
Buchanan fire-box, shown by Figs. 37 and 38. 




Fig. 37. Fig. 38. 

The form of the Belpaire fire-box, shown by Figs. 39 and 40, was applied to 
locomotives for the Matanzas Railroad of Cuba in 1874. 




Fig. 39. Fig. 40. 

The Belpaire fire-box has been extensively used on the continent of Europe, and 
within the past few years has been regarded with much favor by some of the leading 
master mechanics in this country, and it has been adopted on a number of railroads here. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



The fire-box represented by Figs. 27, 28, and 29 is however, the one which has 
been the most commonly used for engines built at the Rogers Works. It has stood the 
test of long experience, and is still regarded with much favor by engineers and master 
.mechanics. 




Fig. 41. 



Fig. 42. 



The form of brick arch shown in Figs. 41 and 42 was used in 1881. In this it 
will be seen that the fire-brick is supported on bent water tubes which are attached 
at one end to the crown sheet, and at the other to the front plate of the fire-box. 
Another form of brick arch supported on water tubes is shown in Figs. 43 and 44. 
This was used in 1885. 




Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 



TUBES. 



Very soon after coal was substituted for wood as fuel in locomotives, the use of 
copper and brass tubes was abandoned in this country, and iron tubes were used instead. 
At first there was a great deal of trouble in keeping these tubes from leaking. This was 
especially the case before steam gauges were generally used. Without these instruments 
it was impossible to tell what the steam pressure was, until the safety valves commenced 
blowing off. They were therefore the principal guides by which the fireman was 
governed, that is, he would "fire" until "she commenced blowing off," and then he 
would open the furnace door wide to cool the fire. The result was that the tubes were 



28 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



thus exposed to alternate currents of cold and hot air, and were thus continually 
expanded and contracted, which caused them to leak. With a steam gauge, however, 
a fireman had always a guide before him to indicate just what the steam pressure was, 
and could control his fire accordingly, and therefore was not obliged to open the furnace 
door so often to regulate the steam pressure. 

While the frequent expansion and contraction of the tubes probably caused 
them to leak, yet there can be no doubt that the methods of fastening them which were 
at first used were much less efficient than those which have since been adopted. 

Fig. 45. 



T 




Fig. 46. Fig. 47. 

The manner of fastening tubes in 1837 is shown in Figs. 45, 46, and 47. The 
tube was inserted into the hole in the tube plate, and a tapered mandril, shown by Fig. 
46, was driven into the end of the tube, so as to expand it to the full size of the hole in 
the plate. This mandril was flattened on five sides, as shown in the end view, Fig. 47. 
After each blow on the end of the mandril it was turned slightly so as to expand the 
tube equally all around. The end of the tube was then turned over, as shown in Fig. 45, 
which represents a longitudinal section of it. Probably some form of caulking tool was 
used for this purpose. A wrought iron thimble Z"was then driven into the end of the tube. 

Fig. 48. 




Fig. 49. 

In 1840 the form of caulking tool shown in Figs. 48 and 49 was adopted. This 
was inserted in the end of the tube with the notch A, bearing against the edge, which 
was then turned over by driving the tool against it with a hammer. 

As already stated, thirty or forty years ago a great deal of trouble was experienced 
on locomotive engines with leaky flues. It was a constant source of annoyance, and every 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



2 9 



few days some one had to go into the furnace to hammer or caulk up the ends of the 
flues and thimbles (the flues at that time were either copper or brass, and the thimbles 
were of wrought iron). 

In 1850 Mr. Hudson, then Master Mechanic of the Attica & Buffalo Railroad, 
conceived the idea that if cast iron thimbles were substituted for wrought iron it would 
remedy this standing difficulty. Acting on this idea he proceeded to verify it, first by 
taking a thimble of each kind, wrought and cast iron, turning them accurately to a guage, 
then heating them red hot, measuring them, and noting the expansion of each ; afterward 
cooling them in water and again measuring them. This process of heating, cooling, and 
measuring was repeated twelve times, when the wrought thimble was found to be 
appreciably smaller in size than at first, and the cast iron thimble larger. It was noticed 
that the former thimbles expanded more than the latter when red hot; this was anticipated. 

To carry this idea into practice, a locomotive with leaky flues was taken: All 
the thimbles were taken out, the flues carefully expanded, and new thimbles put in. One 
half, or all on one side of the centre line of the flue sheet vertically, were of wrought iron, 
and the other half were all of cast iron. At the end of the first trip, when the boiler 
was cooling down, it was found that all the flues with wrought iron thimbles were leaking, 
whereas, at the same time, all those opposite to them with cast iron thimbles were tight. 
The wrought thimbles were then taken out and cast iron ones put in their places, when 
all stopped leaking and so continued, the engine doing duty, without any more trouble 
from leaky flues. The attention of Thomas Rogers was called to the fact, and he began 
to use cast iron thimbles with a like result. Mr. Rogers called the attention of John 
Brandt, then in charge of the motive power of the Erie Railway to the subject; he, also, 
immediately tried cast iron thimbles, and found the result as stated above, and hence 
their use spread and became almost universal; few, except those who had experience in 
the matter at that time, can now realize how much annoyance and expense were saved 
by the change. 





Fig. 50. 



Fig. 51. 



In 1861 tubes were fastened as shown in Fig. 50, that is, a copper end or thimble 
was brazed to the end of the tube, and a steel thimble was placed on the inside of it, so 
as to bring the copper between it and the tube plate. The soft copper between the steel 
thimble and the plate, it was found, assisted materially in making and keeping the tubes 
tight. 

In 1862 the method shown in Fig. 51 was adopted. In this the copper end was 
dispensed with and a copper thimble was placed on the end outside of the tube as shown. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE UORKS. 



The Prosser expander was first used a't the Rogers Works in 1863. This 
is shown by Figs. 52 and 53. Fig. 52 is a side view with the end of the tube and plate 
shown in section at A and A. The expander consists of what may be called a plug 
composed of eight sector-shaped pieces as shown in the end view, Fig. 53. These are 
held together by an open steel spring ring B. In the centre of the sectors there is a 
tapered hole C, Fig. 53 (shown by dotted lines in Fig. 52), into which a tapered plug, 
Fig. 54, is driven. The open spring ring permits the sectors to separate when the tapered 
plug is driven into the opening. The sectors each have a shoulder or projection at S, S, 
These come just inside the tube plate, when the expander is inserted into the tube. By 
driving in the tapered plug or mandril, Fig. 54, the sectors are forced apart, and ex- 
pand the end of the tube. At the same time the shoulders S, S, produce a ridge in the 
tube, inside of the plate, which helps to keep the joint tight. 




Fig. 54. 



Fig. 52. Fig. 53. 



In 1867 the Dudgeon expander, shown by Figs. 55 to 58 was introduced. This 
may be described as a hollow plug which has three rollers, R, R, R, Figs. 55 and 56, 
which are contained in cavities in the plug in which they can revolve, and in which they 
can also move a short distance radially, that is, from the centre of the plug outwards. 




Fig. 58. 



Fig. 57. 



Fig. 55. Fig, 56. 



When this expander is inserted in the end of a tube a tapered mandril, Fig. 57, is driven 
into the central opening, and it then bears against the rollers J?, R and forces them out- 
wards against the tubes. A crank handle is then attached to the square end of the man- 
dril and it is turned around, which causes the rollers to revolve on their own axis. This 
causes the hollow plug to revolve around its axis. The two thus have a sort of sun and 
planet motion in relation to each other. As the rollers bear hard against the tube their 
effect is to elongate it circumferentially, and thus enlarge it so as to completely fill the 
opening in the tube plate. Usually copper ferrules are used outside of the ends of the 
tubes. This method is the one which is now generally employed at the Rogers Works 
for fastening tubes in their plates. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



FURNACE DOOR. 

In 1865 Mr. Hudson used the furnace door deflector illustrated by Figs. 59 and 
60. D is the deflector which is suspended from a hook Z/, attached to the fire-box over 
the furnace door. A lever Z is fastened to the deflector by which it is moved out of the 
way when coal is thrown in the fire. The position of the deflector is regulated by the 




Fig. 59. 



Fig. 60. 



lever, and a latch Z at its upper end. A pair of sliding doors are used in connection 
with the deflector. These are opened by a system of levers which are clearly shown in 
the engravings. This was first suggested by a fireman in England, who found that by 
inserting a scoop shovel upside down in the furnace door he could prevent smoke. 



BOILER SHELLS. 



In making boilers with iron plates, Mr. Hudson always took great pains to have 
the plates of such sizes and proportions that the " grain " or fibres of the iron around 
the barrel of the boiler would be in the direction to resist the greatest strain. This 
practice is still continued in the Rogers Works when iron plates are used. 



32 THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 

In 1852 he adopted the method of making the horizontal seams of boilers, shown 
by Figs. 61 and 62. This consisted of an ordinary single riveted lap seam with a cover- 
ing strip or " welt " over the inside, which was made wide enough to take an extra row 
of rivets on each side of the main row. The outside rows were spaced double the dis- 
tance apart of those in the main row. The welts not only serve to strenghthen the 
seams, but they cover the inside caulking edges where corrosion and " grooving " or 
" channelling " as it is called, is most likely to occur. By being covered, these edges are 
protected from the action of the water. 



\ 




0000 
0000000000000 
1 



Fig. 61 



Fig. 62. 




DOMES. 



The first method of fastening domes, as shown in the engraving of the Sandusky, 
Fig. 12, was to rivet a circular casting having a flange, top and bottom, to the barrel of 
the boiler. The upper part of the dome was also made of cast iron and was bolted to 
the top flange of the circular casting. A similar plan was also adopted when the domes 
were attached to tops of the hemispherical shaped furnaces as shown in Figs. 12 to 22. 

Even after the use of the hemispherical shaped fur- 
nace was abandoned, cast iron domes were still used, 
and in some cases the bases of the domes were made 
of wrought iron. When the size of engines and 
their domes was increased so much that it became 
impracticable and unsafe to make them of cast iron, 
they were made of wrought iron plates, with a flange 
at the bottom, which was riveted to the boiler shell 
as shown in Fig. 30. Later the boiler shell was 
Fig. 63. flanged upward around the edge of the opening at 

the base of the dome, as shown in Figs. 26 and 27, in order to give additional strength at 
this point. The dome was then attached to the boiler with two rows of rivets. In 1880 
a reinforcing ring Jt, 1?, was added at the base of the dome as shown in Fig. 63. This 
serves to strengthen the boiler shell at the base of the dome, where it is weakened by the 
opening required to give access to the inside of the boiler. 




THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



33 



GRATES. 

With very few exceptions, the fuel used in the early locomotives in this country 
was wood. This could be burned successfully with an ordinary " plain " grate as it was 
called, consisting of narrow bars with spaces about ^ in. wide between them. Figs. 64 
and 65 show a grate of this kind, which was used in 1840. The bars were made of cast 
iron, the material of which locomotive grates are almost universally made in this country. 
Figs. 66 and 67, however, represent a grate made of wrought-iron bars, bolted together 
in groups of four bars each. The use of wrought-iron bars is however an exception to the 
general practice in this country. The grate shown in the figures last referred to has a 
drop door D at the front end. This is hinged at B and is held up by the arms A, A, 
on the shaft S. To drop the door, the shaft is turned by the lever on the end of the shaft 
which lowers the arms A, A, and allows the door to fall. 



Fig. 66. 



Fig. 64. 




Fig. 65. 



Fig. 67. 



As much of the bituminous coal in this country, contains a great deal of material 
which causes it to clinker, or otherwise interferes with its free combustion, it has been 
found essential to provide locomotives with what are called shaking grates for " clearing 
the fire." A number of different grates of this kind which have been applied to locomo- 
tives at the Rogers Works are shown by the following engravings : 

3 



34 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Figs. 68 to 71 represent the Allen & Hudson grate, which was patented by Mr. 
Albert J. Allen and William S. Hudson in 1858. The grate is composed of a series of 
cast-iron bars with lugs on their sides as shown in the plan. Underneath the bars are 

Fig. 68. 




Fig- 70. 





Fig. 69. 

two cast iron rocking shafts, S, S', which 

have arms a, a' and b,b' on their opposite 
sides. Each grate bar has two projections 
c, c 1 and d, d' , on its under side. To make 
it clear how the grate operates, it may be 
explained that the bar />, B, shown in Fig. 
69, has the two projections/, c 1 ', attached 
to it, and that the projections </, </' are at- 
tached to the bar next to B, B. The pro- 
*"~ 1 jections c, c 1 ', are connected by pins to the 
arms a, a', and </, //', are attached to the 
arms l>, b 1 . It is obvious then, that when 
the shafts S, S', are rocked, that the arms 
a, a 1 will rise, and b, b 1 will fall simulta- 
neously, and vice versa, and that the grate 
bars connected to these arms will have a 



Fig. 71. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



35 



corresponding movement. As the alternate bars which compose the grate are connected 
to the arms on the right side of the shafts, S, S, and the bars between them are connected 
to the arms on the left side of the shafts, it is plain that the working of these shafts has the 
effect of giving a limited upward and downward movement to the bars in which each bar 

ascends as the next one on either side of it descends, and vice versa. This movement has 

/ 

the effect of breaking up the clinkers or other foreign or residuary matter that may collect 
upon the grate and which tends to choke the draft between the bars, and to cause such 
matter to work down between the bars into the ash pan, and also serves to evenly dis- 
tribute the fuel over the grate. 

The working of the shafts S, S', is effected by means of the lever L which is 
connected by a bar F, to vertical arms /, f, attached to the under side of the shafts. 
The grate is also provided with a drop door. 



Fig. 72. 




Fig. 73. 

Figs. 72 and 73 represent what is called a " finger" grate, which consists of cast 
iron shafts, with projections or fingers on each side. These shafts rest in journals /, /, /, 
and are rocked by a lever (not shown in the engraving) and bar B, the latter connected to 
vertical arms K, K, K, attached to the shafts. It is obvious that as the shafts are rocked 
the fingers on one side rise, and those on the opposite side fall, and that the effect will be to 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




Fig. 74. 




Fig. 75. 

thoroughly shake up the fire. Figs. 74 and 75 represent another form of finger grate. 
Both the forms illustrated were first used in 1860. 

Figs. 76 to 89 represent various forms of "rocking" grates as they are called. 
These have transverse grate bars with journal bearings at each end, similar to those of 



-f-H 



Q Q 



f B 1 f P \ \~l ] T" B 1 f 1) \ I B \ j f- 



O _ O _ . O 



Fig. 76. 






Fig. 77. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



37 




Fig. 78. 



r n n n n n n ri rfn 




D 


o o_ 






















o o_ 


_ o o 


o o 


o o 


o o 


,^c o 


O O ri 







o o 


j O 


o o 


o o 


o c 




~c o~ 





















o o 




























o o 




o o 


O 






C 


o o 


o o 


o u o 


o o 


o" u o 


P 







0% 

II 

r o o 


o o 

00 


11 


a 


00 

1 


So 

11 


o o 









00 

00 




! 


- 1Q TT TT TT _[_ 13 ' Mr TT,J 



Fig. 79. 

the finger grates. The bars are rocked on these journals, which has an effect similar to 
that of the finger grate in stirring up the fire. The construction and action of these 
grates will be obvious from the engravings. 




Fig. 80. 




Fig. 81. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




Fig. 82. 



oo o oo 
ooooo 
ooo oo 
ooooo 
ooooo 
ooooo 
ooo 



ooo 

ooooo 

ooooo 

ooooo 

ooooo 

ooo o o 

ooooo 







Fig. 83. 

For burning anthracite coal the water tube grate is almost universally used. The 
form used on the Philadelphia &: Reading railroad is shown in Figs. 30 and 31. The 




Fig. 84. 




Fig. 85. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



39 




Fig. 87. 

tubes are put in as shown in Fig. 31. Solid bars B, B, are substituted for every fourth 
tube. These bars pass through thimbles T, Fig. 30, in the back end of the fire-box, and 
can be drawn out through this thimble to clean or remove the fire. 



GL 



mm 




Fig. 88. 









































-^ j~ 














=ri 


t^ 


1 


h- 


p 


|-^_ 




(^ 


3 


h= 


TT^ 


2^ i!S 






T~ 
































O O O 


o o o 



o o o 



o o o 










r 


























Tr 


o o 
o o o 



o o o 



o o o 
o o 
o o o 


**, 







































Fig. 89 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Figs. 90, 91, and 92 represent a water grate recently introduced to burn 
bituminous coal. 



a* 




o o o o 


EjQ 




O O O 






asru 




o o o o o 


Eu! 


sat 


O O O O 

OOOOOC 


)OOOOO 

O O O O 


BEL 




o o o o o 






~~ 






_ 



>"l 
.>i 




oocooooooooo 
oooooooooooo 

'J : T 


F 


L_ 




o 5 O S O O O o o o A* 


t 



Fig. 91. 



Fig. 90. 



Fig. 92. 



SMOKE POXES. 



As early as 1859 some engines were built at the Rogers AVorks for the New Jersey 
Railroad & Transportation Company with a form of extended smoke-box, shown in Figs. 93 
and 94. A deflecting plate A was used in front of the top rows of tubes. In the same year 
the form of plate shown in Figs. 95 and 96, which had an adjustable piece B on its lower 
edge, was used on engines, both with and without the extended smoke-box. In 1862 
the telescopic or adjustable petticoat pipe shown in Fig. 97 was applied to engines for the 
Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad. Figs. 98 and 99 show the extended smoke-box ns 
recently applied to passenger engines. A, B, is a deflecting plate in front of the tubes, 
and C, C, C, is wire netting of number 13 wire, and 2-i meshes to an inch. The 
exhaust nozzels F, F, it will be seen, are carried up above the horizontal centre line of 
the boiler. A receptacle D, for sparks, is attached to the under side of the smoke-box 
and has a sliding door E, for emptying the sparks and cinders which accumulate in the 
front end. 

The extended smoke-box, when it was first introduced, met with little favor, but 
in recent years it has been extensively used. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 





Fig. 93- 




Fig. 94. 




Fig, 95. 



Fig. 96. 



Fig. 97. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 







Fig. 99. 



FEED WATER HEATER. 



In 1859 Mr. Hudson designed a feed water heater, which is represented by Fig. 
100, which he applied to a number of engines for the Southern Railroad of Chili, S. A. 
It consisted of a cylinder C, filled with small tubes F. At the end of the cylinder there 
was a chamber A and another B at the opposite end, which was connected together by 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



43 




100. 



the small tubes. The exhaust steam was admitted to A from the exhaust pipes by a pipe 
D, and passed through the small tubes to B. The condensed water ran out through the 
pipe Z, or it was conveyed to the ash pan. If not condensed, the steam passed through 
the pipe G to the chimney. The water from the pump entered the heater at JS, and 
escaped by the pipe F to the check valve. This heater was used for some time, but as 
has occurred in numberless experiments with feed water heaters, it was finally abandoned 
under the impression that its cost was greater than the saving it effected. 




Fig. 101. 



44 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



INJECTORS. 



Injectors were first applied to locomotives at the Rogers Works in 1861. Fig. 
101 shows the arrangement then used. Since that time they have been much improved 
and are almost universally used for feeding locomotive boilers. 



SAFETY VALVES. 



Figs. 102 to 108 represent different kinds of safety valves which have been used 
at various times, the construction of which is made sufficiently clear by the engravings, 
without other explanation. The dates when they were first used is given below each figure. 




Fig. I O2. 

1869. 






Fig. IO7. 

Steam Chest Safety 
Valve, 1882. 




Fig. 104. 

1872. 



Fig. IO5. 

1875- 



Fig. 106. 

1882. 



Fig. 108. 

1883. 



SMOKE STACKS AND SPARK ARRESTERS. 



There is probably no part of a locomotive, unless it to be the valve gear, on 
which so much ingenuity has been exercised as on spark arresters. The very first engines 
built at the Rogers Works had some kind of bonnet or wire netting on the top of the 
chimney to "catch the sparks," and in the article on page 14 reprinted from the 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



45 



American Railroad Journal, of December, 1839, it will be seen that at that time an inverted 
cone was placed on the " axis of the smoke-pipe to protect the wire gauze." Unfortunately 
there are no drawings extant of any of these early spark arresters. Figs. 109 to 137, 
however, give examples of later practice, and show different devices demanded by those 
who ordered locomotives of the Rogers Works. The date when they were first made 
and the fuel used is given under each of the figures. 






Fig. 109. Fig. I 10. Fig. III. 

1854. Wood. 1854. Wood. 1854. Wood. 

Fig. 109 is what is called a bonnet stack, on account of the bonnet or hood of 
wire netting over the top. It was used for burning both wood and coal. 

Fig. no had a deflecting cone and netting in the form of a cylinder over it. 
Fig. 1 1 1 had a large deflecting cone with wire netting in conical form attached to 
the lower edge of the deflector. 

Fig. 112 had a cone with flat horizontal netting of annular form around it. 






Fig. I 1 2. 

1856. Wood. 



Fig. I 13. 

3. Wood and Coal. 



Ficr. I 14. 

1860. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 113 is known as the diamond stack, from the form of the outline of its top. 
It had a deflecting cone, but no netting. 

Fig. 114 had a curious shaped deflecting cone and a cast iron guard at A, A, to 
protect the sheet iron of the outside casing from the action of the cinders. It also had 
an annular opening B B around the top, the supposition being that the air coming in 



4 6 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



contact with the inclined surface C, C, would be deflected upwards through the opening 
23, B, and thus create an induced upward current out of the chimney. 

Fig. 115 had a deflector with conical netting over it, which was open at the top. 

Fig. 116 was the same as Fig. 115, but of different form. 

Fig. 1 1 7 is a straight chimney with a cast iron grate at the top and a sliding 
damper at the base. 







Fig. I 15. 

1862. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. I 16. 

1863. Wood. 



Fig. I 17. Fig. I 18. 

1864. Anthracite Coal. 1866. Bitum, Coal. 



Fig. 118 had a deflector with netting over it, which was open in the middle. The 
opening was surrounded by a cylindrical shaped netting as shown. 

Fig. 119 was the same as Fig. no, but of different shape and proportions. 




Fie. 1 19. 

1867. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 1 2O. 

1869. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 121. 

1869. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 122. 

1870. Wood. 



Fig. 1 20 had a deflector with a very large casing or receptacle for sparks. 
In Fig. 121 the netting was placed horizontally over the deflector. 
Fig. 122 represents the celebrated Radley & Hunter stack, which was at one time 
very generally used for wood burning locomotives. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



47 



Fig. 123 has a conical shaped netting over the deflector, with an opening in the 
centre surrounded by another netting of cylindrical shape. 

Fig. 124 has a deflector with a wire netting bonnet over it. 
Fig. 125 is similar to Fig. 124. 




Fig. 123. 

1872. Wood and Coal. 



Fig. 124. 

1872. Wood. 



Fig, 126. 

1873. Coal. 



Fig. 126 has a deflector with a circular opening above it, and cylindrical guard 
around the edge made of perforated sheet iron or copper. 

Fig. 127 shows what is called a "straight" stack, and has no spark arresting 
attachments. 




Fig. 127. Fig. 128. 

1879. Bitum. Coal. 1879. Bitum. Coal. 



Fig. 129. 

1879. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 130 

1881. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 128 represents the Fontaine stack. This has a deflector D, to which a shield 
S, S, is attached. Between the shield and the outer casing there is space for the passage 
of the products of combustion, which escape in the direction indicated by the darts. 

Fig. 129 has an outside case or receptacle for sparks which was unusually large. 
It had a deflector surmounted with an inverted cone of wire netting. This forms a guard 
for the opening at the top so that all the smoke must pass through the netting to escape 
into the open air. 

Fig. 130 shows a stack with a spark arrester patented by Wm. S. Hudson in 1877. 



4 8 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



The reflector is formed of what Mr. Hudson described as " peculiarly 
curved screw blades," which are shown on plan in the engraving. " The 
gaseous products of combustion," the inventor says in his specification, 
" mingled with more or less small masses of coal in various conditions, 
are thrown violently upward through the cylindrical chimney, and, 
striking in the hollow interior of the dome-like set of wings, are thrown 
into a spiral motion without completely interrupting their upward motion. 
The solid matter is projected against the wire netting. A portion of 
the gaseous matter follows the same course, and another portion moves 
inward, and, passing freely upwards through the open space in the 
centre." 




(31. 

1881. Bituminous 
Coal. 




Fig. 132. 

1881. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 133. 

1882. Bituminous Coal. 



Fig. 134. 

1882. Bituminous Coal. 



1882. 



Fig. 135. 

-Bitumin'sCoal. 



<\ 



7 



Fig. 131 is provided with a casting A, which forms what was called a stricture for 
some purpose not clearly understood. The usual deflector was suspended from a casting 
2), B, with radial arms meeting in the centre. 

Fig. 132. This stack had a large receptacle for sparks, with a 
deflector placed at the top. The latter had a sheet iron guard around the 
edge, as shown in the engraving. The top of the stack 
was open ; no netting was used. 

Fig. 133 had a deflector with wire netting over it 
as shown. 

Fig. 134 was similar to Fig. 133, but of somewhat 
different proportions. It also had what was called a 
" stricture " or contraction of the opening at S. The 
effect of this was to concentrate the escaping current and 
cause the sparks to impinge directly against the deflector. 
Fig- J 35 represents what is called a "straight" 



N 



Fig. 136. 

1882. Bitumin- 

uos Coal. stack without spark arrester of any kind. 



Fig. 137. 

1882. Anthracite 
Coal. 



479 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



49 



Fig. 136 illustrates a straight stack with a long inverted cone inside of it. This 
was made of perforated sheet iron, and was connected at the bottom to the exhaust 
pipe, so that they discharged inside of the cone and the smoke had to pass through the 
perforations in the inverted cone. The perforations were i X/ 2 - in. 

Fig. 137 shows a straight stack for anthracite coal. 

Fig. 138. 




Fig. 139. 



CHIMNEY DAMPERS. 

Figs. 138 and 139 represent a form of damper recently devised and patented in 
1885 by Mr. H. A. Luttgens, who has been the chief draftsman in the Rogers Works for 
28 years past. It is intended for the chimneys of coal burning engines. Its object is to 
diminish the effect of the exhaust by admitting air at the base of the chimney, and thus 
obviating the necessity for opening the fire door and admitting cold air into the fire-box. 

In constructing the damper the base of the chimney is made of the form shown 
in half section on the left side of Fig. 138, from which it will be seen that there are 
cavities A, through which air is admitted, as indicated by the darts. The outer openings 
of these cavities are shown by the dark shading and dotted lines in the plan, Fig. 139. 
On top of these openings is a circular valve or cover with openings corresponding to 
those in the base of the chimney. This valve by being turned a part of a revolution by 
means of the links , E, and lever C, C, which is connected with the cab by a rod Z>, 
will cover or uncover the openings leading to the cavities in the base of the chimneys, 
and thus air may be admitted to or shut off from the chimney at pleasure. 

4 



T. 



c 



o 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



THE ENGINES. 



CYLINDERS. 

The first method of fastening outside cylinders was to bolt them to the smoke- 
box, which was made of sheet or plate iron. When the cylinders were steeply inclined, 
as shown in Fig. 17, page 17. This could be done without difficulty, but when 
they were placed lower down it was necessary to extend the smoke-box downward. The 
lower part was usually made rectangular in shape, as shown in Fig. 140, with a heavy 
wrought iron bar , J3, , riveted around the inside at the front end. The cylinders were 





Fig. 140. 

then bolted to the outside of the smoke-box and to the frames F, F, as shown in the 
engraving. This method of fastening was first used in 1844. 

Inside cylinders were attached to the smoke-box and frames as shown in Fig. 141. 




Fig. 141. 

The next step, which was taken in 1853, was to make the bottom B. B, Fig. 142, 
of the smoke-box of a heavy wrought-iron plate. This extended outward so as to rest 
on top of the frames F, F. The cylinders were then placed on top of the plate and 
bolted to it, and to the smoke-box and frames, as shown. A bar C, C, with T ends was 
also placed crosswise between the bar B, B, to keep it apart and stiffen the whole attachment. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 





Fig. 142. 

In 1865 the arrangement shown in Fig. 143 was adopted. The smoke-box in 
this case was substantially like that shown in Fig. 142, but a cast-iron bed E, E, was 




I 




3 E 






("Til rTT[ 


B 


r r 


1 

"7l (TTl 




Fig. 143. 

placed between the two frames F, F, and bolted to them by flanges. The smoke-box 




Fig. 144. 

was then placed on top of the bed plate and bolted to it. The cylinders were bolted to 
the bed plate frame and smoke box as shown. 

About the same time the plan represented in Fig. 144 was put in use. In this the 
smoke-box was made cylindrical and a heavy bed casting E, , with steam and exhaust 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



pipes cast in it, was bolted to it by suitable flanges. The cylinders were then attached to 
the frames and to this casting as shown. 




Fig. 145. 

In 1871, the plan shown in Fig. 145 was adopted. The smoke-box was 

cylindrical, and one-half the bed casting was cast with each cylinder. They are bolted 
together in the centre as shown. This plan is now almost universally used in this country 
and makes a very neat, strong, and satisfactory job. 

VALVES AND VALVE GEARING. 

The main valves which were first 
built by Mr. Rogers were of the ordi- 
nary I) pattern and the valve-gearing 
was a form of hook motion. In some 
cases as shown in Fig. 14, the eccentrics 
were outside of the journals and wheels. 
Unfortunately, there are no authentic 

Fig. 146. drawings in existence of the various 

forms of valve gearing which were at first used. At an early date Mr. Rogers was im- 
pressed with the importance of using steam expansively, and in 1843 and 1846 he 





Fig. 147. 

designed and used the valve gearing shown in Fig. 146. It serves to show the thought 
he was giving at that date to the subject of working steam expansively. 
Fig. 147 shows another plan which he introduced in 1847. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



53 



When the link-motion was introduced into this country its use was violently 
opposed by many locomotive builders and master mechanics. Mr. Rogers was one of 




Fig. 148 

the first American engineers to recognize its merits. In 1849' he used the suspended 
link-motion, shown in Fig. 148, for some engines for the Hudson River Railroad, and in 




Fig. 149. 

1850 he applied the shifting link motion, shown in Fig. 149, to some engines which he 
built. It will be noticed that in this case the lifting-shaft was below the link. In the 




Fig. 150. 

same year he designed the form of link-motion shown by Fig. 150 for some ten-wheel 
engines, the front wheels and axles of which came in the way of the rocking shaft. In 
this case the lifting shaft was above the link. 

Fig. 151 represents a combination of link motion with an independent graduated 



54 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



cut-off valve. It was used on several locomotives built at the Rogers Works in 1854, 
and it is said was found to be beneficial in economizing fuel. 




Fig. 151. 

For many years the form of valve-gear, shown in Fig. 149, was used by Mr. 
Rogers, and after his death it was applied to many engines; but in 1862 Mr. Hudson 




Fig. 152. 

designed the form of link-motion shown by Fig. 152, in which the lifting shaft was placed 
above the link. This is the form which is now most commonly used. The link motion 




Fig. 153. 

shown by Fig. 153 was also designed the same year by Mr. Hudson and applied to some 
ten-wheel engines, in which the front wheels and axle came in the way of the rocking shaft. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



55 



In 1866 the valve gearing shown in Fig. 154, which was designed and patented 
by Messrs. Uhry &: Luttgens, was applied to an engine for the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey. In this there is an ordinary shifting link worked by two eccentrics and connected 
with a pin attached the lower arm of a rocking shaft in the usual way. What may be 

called a supplementary rocking- j. a 

shaft R, R 1 , was pivoted to the 
top pin of the main rocking-shaft. 
The lower arm R 1 of the supple- 
mentary rocking-shaft is bent into 
a half circle, as shown, in order to 
clear the main rocking-shaft M, 
The supplementary rocker is work- 
ed by a cam, O', which was con- 
nected to a pin P. The effect of the 
action of the cam is to accelerate Fig. 154. 

the movement of .the valve at the time that it opens the ports for admission and exhaust. 
Its adjustment is the same as that of the link-motion, and at the higher grades of expan- 
sion it gives about 50 per cent, greater opening of steam port. The point of exhaust 
is retarded from 5 to 6 inches beyond the link-motion, while the point of compression 





Fig. 155. 




Fig. 156. 

remains the same. The size of opening of the exhaust port is somewhat larger than 
with the link-motion, and it is opened in less time, thereby producing a strong and 
clear exhaust. 

Its objectionable feature is the cam as a mechanical device for locomotives. 
Whether this objection would be as great if used with a balanced valve as it is with an 
ordinary slide-valve remains yet to be proved. 

Figs. 155 and 156 shows the methods which was adopted in 1873, in applying the 
Allen link-motion to some narrow gauge engines for the Patillas Railway, S. A., in which 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \VORKS. 



the front axle was in the way. Ordinarily the Allen link is made straight, but in this 
case Mr Hudson found that it would not give a satisfactory movement to the valve 
without curving the link slightly. 

Fig. 157 shows another method of applying a link-motion to engines in which 
the front axle was in the way. This was used in 1881. 




Fig. 157. 



COUNTERWEIGHTS FOR LINKS. 



When shifting links were introduced it became important to counterbalance their 
weight so as to lessen the 'effort required to move them. The arrangement shown in 
Fig. 158 was adopted in 1858. In this the counterweight Fwas attached to an arm or 
bell crank forged on the reversing lever. 





Fig. 158. 

The unwieldy character of a counterweight led to the substitution of springs of 
various forms. The plan shown in Fig. 159 was adopted in 1859. In this a half elliptic 
spring S,' which was attached by its ends, A, A, to fixed parts of the engine, was connected 
by a rod R to a short arm B which was keyed on the lifting-shaft by a strap S, 
as shown. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



57 



Another plan of applying a semi-elliptic spring is shown in plan in Fig. 160. In 
this case the spring S was connected to a short arm B forged on the middle of the lifting 
shaft. 

In 1860 a spiral spring, Fig. 161 and 162, was used. The inner end of this 
spring was attached to the lifting-shaft S and the other end was fastened to a case in which 
it was enclosed. The case was prevented from turning by a bolt B. The required 
amount of tension was brought on the spring by turning the case, and the bolt was 
adjusted in any one of the holes, which were arranged in a circle as shown in the engraving. 




Fig. 161. 



Fig. 162. 




Fig. (60. Fig. 163. 

In 1873 a pair of volute springs was substituted for the semi-elliptic spring. 
These volute springs are shown in Fig. 163. They were inclosed in a case and fastened 
by a bolt B to one of the cross beams, and were connected by a rod R to a short arm 
on the lifting-shaft, like that shown in Fig. 160. In this instance the rod R was subjected 
to a compressive strain by the tension of the two volute springs. 

Fig. 164 shows a helical spring which was applied in 1875 for the same purpose. 
This was also enclosed in a cylindrical case, which was fastened to a fixed part of the 
engine. A chain C, C, was fastened at one 
end to the shaft, and wound around it as 
shown. The other end was attached to a rod 
y? which was screwed into a collar K. When 
the shaft was turned the spring was corn- 




Fig. 164. 



pressed. Its tension could be adjusted by means of the screw end on the rod so as to 
balance the weight of the link. 



SLIDE VALVES. 



The first slide valves used at the Rogers Works were the ordinary D pattern. In 
1853 Mr. Rogers adopted the Hackworth valve, Fig. 165, with double exhaust ports. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



This valve had about -^ in. lap at a, a', and only ^ at b. Consequently the steam 
was not released at a, a', as shown in Fig. 166, until the steam port^ was opened nearly 
fe in. wide at b. Then the two ports a and a 1 each commence to open. The exhaust 
was thus delayed, but when it did begin the steam escaped through both of the openings 

at a, a 1 . The area of the exhaust opening was 
therefore doubled when the release occurred. This 





Fig. 165. 



Fig. 166. 



form of valve was used up to 1872 and applied to more than 250 engines, but its advantages 
did not seem to compensate for the increase in its area, which was due to the double ports. 




Fig. 167. 

In 1864 Mr. John Gleason patented a valve which Mr. Hudson afterwards 
modified and introduced in the form shown by Figs. 167 and 168. This had a saddle S 




Fig. 168. 

on top, the position of which was regulated by set screws, as shown. The saddle had 
steam openings B, , and an exhaust opening A on its under side. The valve had 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



59 



double exhaust ports the same as are shown in Figs. 165 and 166. In addition it had 
two supplementary steam passages C, C. In the position shown in Fig. 169, not only 
was the steam port B open at b, but there was another opening at a through which steam 
passed to the supplementary port c, as shown by the dart, and thence to the cylinder. 
The opening of the steam ports was thus doubled during the early portion of the period 
of admission. A similar action occurred on the exhaust side. This valve was tried, but 
with rather doubtful resulting advantages. 




Fig. 169. 

In 1868 the Bristol roller slide valve, shown by Figs. 170 and 171, was applied to 
a number of engines. This valve rested on a series of rollers R, R, placed in each side 
of the valve. They were connected to a frame J?, F> their axles or spindles having a 
little play in their journals. Steel plates were attached to the valve on each side, and 
others to the valve-seat, so that the rollers rested on the latter below, and the valve was 




Fig. I7O. 



Fig. 171. 



carried by the upper plates, which in turn rested on the rollers. With careful workman- 
ship, the pressure of the valve could be carried on the rollers, and as it wore, of course, 
there was little or no contact between its face and seat. These valves were quite 
extensively introduced, but their use has been gradually abandoned. 

In 1882 two forms of the Allen valve were introduced. Figs. 172 and 173 shows 
an Allen valve with Richardson's " balanced " or equilibrium device applied to it, and 
Fig. 172 shows an Allen valve with extensions to increase its length, and with steam- 
ports to admit live steam from below into the supplementary port S, S. The Allen valve 
although an American invention, was not used on locomotives in this country to any 
extent until after the expiration of the patent on it. It is now extensively used and its 
advantages are generally recognized. 



6o 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




Fig. 172. 




Fig. 173. 




Fig. 174. 



THE RUNNING GEAR. 

FRAMES. 

The frames used on the first locomotives built by Mr. Rogers (see Figs. 1 2 and 
14), were made of two plates, with wood filling between them. The journal bearings 
were outside the wheels, as shown in the Figs, referred to. 

Bury, who first introduced the hemispherical topped furnace in England also 
used bar frames on some of his engines. It seems probable that his form of fire-box and 
method of constructing frames were simultaneously introduced here. There are no 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



61 



drawings extant of the early frames made at the Rogers Works, but in 1844 the form of 
frame shown in Fig. 175 was used. It consisted, as will be seen, of a straight bar on 










62 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



top, with cast-iron pedestals bolted to it and braced at the bottom very much after the 
manner in use at present. 

In 1850, wrought-iron pedestals were substituted for those of cast-iron, as shown 
in Fig. 176. In 1854, the whole frame was forged in one piece, as shown in Fig. 177. 
With this form of construction some difficulty was encountered in cases of collision, and 
other accidents to locomotives, in which either the front or the back ends ot the frames 
were injured. It then became necessary to take down the whole frame to repair one end. 
This led to making the front and back ends in separate pieces and bolting them together, 
as shown in Fig. 178. With this plan, if either end was taken down it was necessary to 
remove one pair of driving wheels. As the front part of the frame is usually injured in 
accidents, it was desirable to be able to take it down without removing any of the driving 
wheels. The plan shown in Fig. 179 was therefore adopted in 1868. In this the front 
end is bolted to the back end, ahead of the front pedestals, so that the front part can 
be removed without disturbing the driving wheels, if it is desirable to do so. This form 
of construction is the one which is still used and has been very generally adopted on 
American locomotives. 



\rr~ ~f~ 

Fig. ISO. 

One of the difficulties in the construction of narrow guage engines is that there is 
not room enough between the frames for the fire-box, and it must therefore be made very 
narrow. To obviate this Mr. Hudson in 1873 designed the frames shown in Figs. 180 
and 181. In this plan the main frames A, A, are placed in the usual position inside of 




Fig. 181. 

the wheels. A cross plate , , which projected outside of the wheels, was bolted to 
the back ends of the frames. Two flat bars C, C, were then bolted to the cross-plate, 
and placed far enough apart so as to give sufficient room between them, for a fire-box 
of the width required. The tank locomotive represented by plate XXIII has a frame of 
a similar plan. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



SPRINGS AND EQUALIZING LEVERS. 

Ordinary equalizing levers were used between the driving-wheels on the engine 




Fig. 182. 

1837. 




Fig. (83. 

1850. 

represented by Fig. 18, which was built in 1845. Mr. Rogers appreciated their value, 
and very few if any engines were afterwards built without using them in some form. 




Fig. 184. 

1860. 



SL 




Fig 185. 

1867. 

Figs. 182 to 1 86 show the forms of spring and equalizing lever arrangement that were 
successively used for eight-wheeled American engines. 



6 4 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




Fig. 186. 

1880. 



Figs. 187 and 188 represent a plan adopted for narrow guage engines in 1878. 
The purpose was to allow a wider fire-box to be used than is possible when the springs are 
placed alongside of it. 

Fig. 187. 




Fig. 188. 

Fig. 189 shows the arrangement of springs used in 1880 for consolidation engines. 
The springs for the front axle are not shown in the engraving. Their connection with 




Fig. 189. 

the leading truck and other applications of equalizing levers will be described farther on 
under the head of trucks. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



DRIVING WHEELS. 

A method of constructing driving-wheels for 5 ft. gauge roads, which it is expected 
will have their guage changed and which will therefore require to have their tires 
brought nearer together to conform to the altered guage, is shown in Figs. 190 and 191. 
A projection P, P, is cast on the inside of the wheel centre. The tires are then set to 
conform to the wide guage. When the time comes to narrow it the tires are simply 
moved farther in. The projection of the wheel centre which is left on the outside is then 
turned off, which leaves the wheel in proper condition for the narrow guage. The first 
engine with wheels constructed in this way was for the Alabama cSc Great Southern Rail- 
road in 1 88 1. Since then all engines built for 5 ft. guage roads, which it is expected will 
be changed to the standard guage are made in this way. 




Fig. I9O. Fig. (91. 

In addition to the extra depth of the rim of the wheel centre the spokes are 
extended on the outside so as to form a brace or support to the projecting rim. These 
braces as well as the projection are turned off when the guage of the wheels is narrowed. 

This expedient for changing the guage was suggested by Mr. James Cullen, 
Master Mechanic of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railroad, to Mr. R. S. 
Hughes, Secretary and Treasurer of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works. The 
plan was at once adopted for engines for the 5 ft. gauge. 



CONNECTING RODS. 



Figs. 192 to 203 represent various forms of connecting rods which have been 
made at the Rogers Works at various times. The dates when they were first used are 
appended to the engravings, which show the construction so clearly that further 
description is not needed. 



66 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




Fig. 192. 

1837. 




Fig. 193. 

1845. 




Fig. 194. 

1854-,. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 






Fig. 195. 

1861. 



Fig. 196. 

1870. 



D 

y_j> 




IJi _ m 




Fig. 197. 

1870. 



68 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \\ORKS. 




ULJ 




Fig. 198. 

1880. 




a 

Fig. 199. 

1880. 




Fig. 200. 

1880. 






1 

I 





; 


|i 
i i ' 


1 




1 










Fig 


. 2 

[83: 


02. 




m m 




Fig. 201. 

1880. 




Fig. 203. 

1885. 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



6 9 



TRUCKS. 

When trucks were first used in this country, it was considered very essential that 
their axles should be as near together as possible, and from Figs. 12 to 22 it will be 
seen that the trucks of all the early engines built at the Rogers Works had their wheels as 
close to each other as they could be placed. With outside cylinders this could be done 
without difficulty so long as the cylinders were inclined, but owing to the rolling motion 
which was produced by cylinders with a steep inclination, and also other inconveniences, 
the tendency was to lower the cylinders, and, excepting with large driving wheels, this 
made it necessary to spread the truck wheels farther apart. Finally the cylinders were 
brought down horizontal, and it was then found that there was really no disadvantage in 
placing the wheels the required distance apart, but rather the reverse. 

Excepting as they are shown in the small engravings of the engines, no drawings of 
the early trucks which were made at the Rogers Works have survived to the present time. 




Fig. 204. 

1850. 




O 00 



O 00 



J 



Fig. 205. 




Fig. 2O6. 

In 1850 Mr. Rogers designed the truck shown by Figs. 204, 205, and 206. This 
had a rectangular wrought-iron frame with either cast or wrought-iron pedestals bolted 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



to it, and with a pair of bent equalizing levers on each side and a spring between the 
wheels, as shown. The centre plate was carried on a system of bracing, clearly shown 
in the engravings. This form of truck has been built continuously ever since it was 
first introduced, with very little change, and has been adopted by other locomotive 
builders substantially as it was designed by Mr. Rogers, and probably is more extensively 
used, and has given greater satisfaction than any other form of locomotive truck that 
has ever been made. It is still the standard locomotive truck on many railroads. 




Fig. 207. 




Fig. 209. 

Figs. 207, 208, and 209 represent a truck introduced in 1852. This had journal 
bearings both inside and outside of the wheels. It was used for fast passenger engines, 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. Jl 

and is shown in Fig. 23. It was first made with a centre bearing, but later the Bissell 
arrangement, which is shown in the engravings, was combined with it. 

In 1857 Mr. Bissell patented the truck, which ever since has been known by his 
name. His first patent was for a four-wheeled truck, shown by Figs. 210, 211, and 212. 
The frame of this truck was extended backward, and instead of turning around a centre- 
pin between the two axles, the pin C, was placed some distance behind the rear axle, 
and the truck turned or vibrated around it. The engine rested on a pair of V-shaped 
inclined planes, midway between the two axles. One of these inclined planes is shown 
in section at D, in Fig. 212. 

Fig. 2IO. 




Fig. 211. 




Fig. 212. 



The inventor claimed that a truck of his plan adjusts itself to the curvature of the 
track better than one of the ordinary plan. Mr. Hudson was one of the first to recognize 
the value of Bissell's invention, and applied it to a locomotive in 1858. In the same year 
Bissell patented the single axle or "pony" truck, as it is often called. This was constructed 
on substantially the same principle as his four-wheeled truck, and is represented in Figs. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



213, 214, and 215. In the engraving, Fig. 214, to save room, the extension of the frame, 
which is attached to the centre-pin, is represented as being broken. This truck was 
applied to some Mogul engines at the Rogers Works in 1863. 

Fig. 213. Pig. 215. 




Fig. 214. 

In 1862 Mr. Alba F. Smith patented " the employment in a locomotive engine of 

a truck or pilot fitted with pendent links to allow of lateral motion to the engine." 
Fig. 216. 




IMS 

fife 
,c 





Fig. 217. Fig. 218. 

Smith's invention consisted in the substitution of swing links for the inclined planes in 

Bissell's truck. Smith's truck is shown in Figs. 216, 217, and 218. The engine rested 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



73 



on a bolster B, which was suspended from the truck by swing-links Z, Z, Figs. 217 and 
218. From these it received the name of the swing-motion truck. It was first applied 
to a locomotive at the Rogers Works in 1865. 

In 1864 Mr. Hudson took out another patent for an improvement in lateral 
moving trucks, which is shown in Figs. 219, 220, and 221. Instead of pivoting the 
truck to a fixed point behind the axles at A, as Bissell did, Mr. Hudson used a long link 
or " radius bar " J3, B, which was pivoted at its front end C, to a pair of lugs attached 
to the centre pin plate of the engine. The back end of the radius bar was allowed some 
lateral motion, but was confined within certain limits by a sort of guide shown at D. 
This arrangement, Mr. Hudson claimed, permitted the truck to adjust itself more perfectly 
to curves of different radii than was possible without the use of the radius bar. The 
arrangement was used with both BisselPs and Smith's lateral motion mechanism. 




Fig. 220. Fig. 221. 

The most important results accomplished by Bissell's invention were due to the 
adoption of his lateral moving single axle or " pony truck," as it is called, which was 
pivoted behind the axle. The first engine of the " Mogul " type, Fig. 26, which was built 
at the Rogers Works, had a two-wheeled Bissell truck with the inclined planes for pro- 
ducing the lateral motion. It was completed in 1863. Afterwards the swing-links 
patented by Mr. Smith were used. 

In the description of the engine illustrated by Fig. 17, it was pointed out that it 
had equalizing levers, which extended from the driving axle to the centre of the truck 
on each side of the engine, with springs in the centre of the levers. Although this 



74 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



arrangement did not give satisfaction at that time, it had the germ of an invention which 
Mr. Hudson afterwards applied very extensively. 

In 1864 he patented the arrangement, shown by Figs. 222, 223, and 224, of an 
equalizing lever between the two-wheeled truck and the front driving wheels, whereby both 
the truck and driving wheels maintain their proper portion of weight and accommodate 
themselves to the vertical, as well as to the lateral motion, required to enable the 
engine to pass over uneven tracks and around curves with ease as well as with safety. 
In the arrangement referred to the driving wheels E and ^each have the usual springs 
e and/, connected together by an equalizing lever /, with a fulcrum at i. The front 
driving wheels G, have springs g. The front strap or hangers n, of these springs are 
connected to a cross-beam J, (shown clearly in Fig. 223). A central equalizing lever K 





Fig. 222. 



Fig. 224. 




Fig. 223. 

bears on the middle of the cross-beam J. It has a fulcrum at k, and its front end rests 
on the bolster or swing-beam N of the truck. The effect of this arrangement is that any 
weight borne by the driving wheels is transmitted to the truck and vice versa. In his 
patent specification Mr. Hudson said : 

" If tracks could be made perfectly uniform and regular and be maintained in that condition, my 
invention would be of little importance ; but in practice irregularities more or less serious occur at 
nearly every joint or junction of the ends of the rails, and at certain points in the track, as in passing 
switches and across tracks, and especially in passing over small obstacles or defects in the road, the 
inequality in the load which is thrown upon the several wheels becomes immense ; unless, in addition 
to the use of the springs, provision is made by introducing equalizing levers in some manner, to induce 
a unity of action between each pair of wheels and some other pair. The three pairs of drivers E, F, 
and G, Fig. 222, have been connected together by equalizing levers ; but I have never known the two 
pairs E, F, to be connected together into one system, and the forward drivers G, to be connected to the 
truck wheels, so as to form another and independent system, previous to my invention. 

" My invention practically supports the forward portion of the structure at the point k, and the 
rear portion of the structure on the two points i, i, opposite the sides of the fire-box ; thus making a 
triangle on which the structure is carried with a certainty of holding each wheel with sufficient force 
upon the track, and yielding easily and safely to every ordinary inequality." 



THE ORGANIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Figs. 222, 223, and 224 are copied from the drawing of the patent specification. 
In these drawings a truck with Bissell's inclined planes c, c, is represented. Figs. 225, 
226, and 227 show the arrangement used by Mr. Hudson in 1865 for Mogul locomotives. 
In this truck Smith's swing-links were substituted instead of Bissell's inclined planes. 

In 1867 Mr. Hudson patented his double-end truck locomotive, to which 




Fig. 225. 





Fig. 227. 





Fig. 230. 



Fig. 23 1 . 



Fig. 229. 

reference was made in a previous chapter. Figs. 227, 228, 229, and 230, are copied from 
his patent specification. In this engine the Bissell truck at each end was connected 
with the springs of the driving wheels adjoining. The truck of what is ordinarily the 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



front end of the engine was connected to the driving wheel springs by a single equalizing 
lever in the manner already described. At the opposite end of the engine there were 
two equalizing levers, one on each side of the fire-box, as shown in the engraving. 

In 1872 Mr. Hudson patented another form of double end truck locomotive, 
represented in Plate XVIII. This had a four-wheeled swing-motion truck behind 
the fire-box, and a pony truck in front of the cylinders. Fig. 232 shows the arrange- 
ment of the driving wheel springs and the way that they were connected with the pony 
truck by the equalizing levers E. The driving wheel springs were not connected with 
the four-wheeled truck. 




Fig. 232. 

As was stated in a previous chapter, in 1872 Mr. Hudson took out a number of 
patents covering different forms of truck locomotives to which his method of equalizing 
the truck with the driving wheels was applied. Plates XIX, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, 
and XXVIII represent engines built in accordance with some of these plans. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS IN 1886. 



IN 1835 Messrs. Rogers, Ketchum & Grosvenor began some buildings with a view to 
the manufacture of locomotives. The Locomotive Works therefore, are over fifty 
years old ; although Mr. Rogers and his partners were engaged in machine business some 
years before. During this period not only has the development of the locomotive, con- 
sidered from an engineering point of view, been very remarkable, but the growth of the 
business of their manufacture has been equally so. The accompanying table shows the 
number of locomotives built each year at the Rogers Works up to 1885. The figures in 
the top horizontal line are the diameters of the cylinders of the engines, and the figures 
in the vertical columns, under these dimensions, give the number of engines built each 



TABLE OF DELIVERY OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES 

FROM 1837 TO 1885 INCLUSIVE, 
Giving Number of Engines and Size of Cylinders of Engines. 




w 


DIAMETER OF CYLINDERS. 


_ V ^. 

5 'Sb'3 

H c x> 
W 


ro 


"<* 


u-> 


<C 


"^ 


30 


ON 











i < 


^\ 


P 


^ 


ro 


ro 





? 


*r> 


^ 


vO 


X 


^ 


^ 


^ 


00 


oo" 


o 





1837 


















































































i 






































i 


1838 


















I 










































7 


1839 




























































ii 


1840 




























































7 


1841 




















I 








































9 


1842 




















I 


2 






































6 


1843 




























































9 


1844 




















2 


4 


2 


2 


































12 


1845 








I 














2 


7 


2 


i 
































14 


1846 




















2 


4 




2 


4 




3 






I 


I 




















17 


1847 
















I 


I 




3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


























22 


1848 


















I 


2 


i 


2 




I 


18 




5 


2 




I 








3 












39 


1849 


















I 




i 


3 


4 


I 


5 


5 


3 


2 


5 




4 






8 




3 








45 


1850 




















3 


i 


5 


4 


I 


8 




5 


I 


3 




7 






5 












43 


1851 




















i 




i 


I 




8 


2 


4 




ii 


2 


4 






H 




3 








53 


1852 




















i 


i 


2 


8 


3 


7 


3 


'3 


4 


18 




4 




4 


2 












68 


1853 




















2 


i 




12 


4 


7 


21 


18 


4 


3 


3 


12 


















89 


1854 






















i 


I 


7 


i 


6 


4 


IO 


36 


1 6 


4 


12 










4 








102 


1855 




















2 


i 




3 


2 


9 


2 


5 


8 


37 


i 


II 








i 










82 


1856 


























i 


7 


4 




8 


2 


20 




45 








8 










95 


1857 


























7 


8 


5 


3 


7 


2 


8 




4i 










3 








84 


1858 






















i 




3 


i 


4 


I 


4 




8 




2 


















24 


1859 


























4 




6 


4 


10 


3 


26 




5 


















58 


1860 














2 








3 




2 


4 


'3 


4 


7 


2 


30 


2 


'7 


2 
















88 


1861 




I 








I 














I 




3 




3 


2 


7 




6 


3 




I 












28 


1862 




























2 


6 


3 


5 


I 


7 


2 


7 


3 




2 




4 








42 


1863 




















2 








I 




5 


5 




16 




36 


5 




4 












74 


1864 
































3 


13 


I 


3 


10 


45 






2 












I0| 


1865 






















i 








5 


i 


9 




20 




24 


10 




6 




19 








95 


1 866 




























2 


4 




15 


I 


19 


I 


31 


ii 




8 




ii 








103 


1867 


I 




























i 




5 


2 


H 




22 


6 




i 












52 


1868 






























2 


i 


.7 




12 


I 


31 




i 


i 




'4 








7 


1869 




I 


2 




















I 




IO 


3 


H 




'9 




50 


i 




1 1 




5 








117 


1870 






I 








I 






I 










9 


3 


26 




44 




56 




I 


7 




4 








145 


1871 










4 


3 






I 


2 


2 








5 




17 




38 




59 




3 


19 




12 








165 


1872 










i 










I 










i 


i 


12 




21 




70 






41 




2 4 








172 


1873 




















I 


I 








i 




10 


2 


17 


I 


72 




i 


55 




32 








193 


1874 
































I 




5 




ii 






2 












19 


1875 






I 






I 








I 




3 






3 


I 




7 




12 






'3 












42 


1876 






















* 












I 




2 




5 






3 






5 






17 


1877 














I 












2 








2 




4 










3 




2 








14 


1878 






















2 




6 


1 


i 


2 


4 








19 






3 




8 








46 


1879 












i 


I 








2 




i 


3 




I 


3 




6 


I 


31 






3 




3 








56 


1880 
1881 






















2 








2 
I 




2 
I 




5 

10 




32 

42 






34 

37 




9 
63 




24 

ZA 


7 


125 

221 


1882 


































2 




18 




29 






81 




85 




T- 
2O 


25 


26o 


1883 






















I 








2 




s 




35 




21 






84 




77 




53 


J 
I 


279 


1884 


















I 












2 




3 




2 




6 






36 




20 




7 


7 


80 


1885 






















12 




i 








3 




I 




2 






34 




20 




J 


/ 


73 



/S THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 

year, with cylinders of the size indicated above. Although the diameter of the cylinder 
is not a very exact measure of the capacity of locomotives, nevertheless, in the table it 
gives a tolerably correct idea of their increase in size since the time Mr. Rogers first 
started in the business. 

The Sandusky, the first locomotive built by him, weighed probably less than ten 
tons. Since then locomotives have been built at the Rogers Works weighing 57 tons. 
The figures in the lower right hand corner of the table show that most of the locomotives 
built in late years had very large cylinders and the engines themselves were of 
corresponding size. 

The engraving of the Works opposite page 3 shows them as they were in 1832, and 
the frontispiece in 1886. The plan map in Fig. 233 on page 79 will perhaps give a 
better idea of their magnitude than the perspective view. 

The last catalogue of the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works was issued in 
1876. Since then the facilities for doing work has been more than doubled. A large 
number of tools have been added, some of them specially designed for locomotive 
building. The shops are all thoroughly equipped with the most approved modern tools 
for doing accurate work, and with a complete system of templates and gauges, by the 
use of which the same parts of locomotives are furnished with a degree of precision 
which insures their being interchangeable. This makes it practicable to supply duplicate 
parts of locomotives manufactured by the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works at 
the shortest notice, which facilitates repairs and reduces very materially the cost of the 
maintainance of motive power. 

About 2,000 men can be advantageously employed, and thirty-three full-sized 
locomotives can be turned out per month. The late Superintendent, Mr. AVilliam S. 
Hudson, who did so much for the reputation of these Works, has been succeeded by Mr. 
John Headden, who was formerly with the New Jersey Railroad & Transportation 
Company before that line was leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 

The Works have, in fact, every facility which long experience, thorough organiz- 
ation and abundant capital can provide for conducting the business of manufacturing 
locomotives. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE' AND MACHINE WORKS IN 1886. 



79 



OLIVER STRE 




Fig. 233. 



80 THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



CHAPTER VII. 

A REMARKABLE RUN OF 426.6 MILES BY ROGERS' LOCOMOTIVES 
ON THE NEW YORK, WEST SHORE & BUFFALO RAILWAY. 



THE following letters to the Editors of the Railroad Gazette, which was published in 
that paper of July 17, 1885, will explain itself: 

NEWARK, N. Y., July 10, 1885. 
To THE EDITOR OK THE RAILROAD GAZETTE: 

Herewith I send you a copy of train sheet, showing run made by special train of three cars from 
East Buffalo to Frankfort yesterday, over the New York West Shore & Buffalo Railway. I wish to call 
your attention to some of the ieatures of this extraordinary run, to show the perfection of our road-bed 
and rolling-stock, and the high standard of service which renders it possible to maintain such a high rate 
of speed without an accident or without delay to other trains. No preparation was made for the train, as 
we did not know of its coming until a few hours before it left Niagara Falls. Prominent officials of the 
Baltimore & Ohio, Wabash, Grand Trunk and West Shore Railroads were on board, en route for New 
York. Some of these gentlemen kept an accurate record of the running time and report that several 
miles were made in 43 seconds, while the greater part of the run was made at a speed averaging 45 to 48 
seconds per mile. This is at the rate of 70 to 83 miles per hour. If you will analyze the run you will 
be surprised to find that their assertions must be true, and that the speed was maintained throughout the 
whole of the run. Please note the run from East Buffalo to Genesee Junction, 61 miles. Starting from 
a dead stop at East Buffalo, they came to a stop at Genesee Junction within exactly 56 minutes. 

The run from Alabama to Genesee Junction, 36.3 miles, was made in precisely 30 minutes. 

The run from East Buffalo to Newark, 93.4 miles, was made in 97 minutes. There are two stoppages 
to be deducted from this : one of 7 minutes at Genesee Junction for water and oiling engine, and a full 
stop at Red Creek for the New York, Lake Erie & Western Grade crossing, for which we deduct two 
minutes making actual running time 88 minutes. 

At Newark the train stopped 9 minutes to change engines. 

The conditions are not so favorable for fast running east of Newark as west; but the distance from 
Newark to Frankfort was covered in 134 minutes ; distance, 108.3 miles. There were six stoppages in 
this distance, aggregating a delay of 17 minutes, which makes the actual running time 117 minutes. 

The whole run from East Buffalo to Frankfort, 202 miles, was made in four hours, or 240 minutes. 
Deducting total detentions of 35 minutes, the actual running time was 205 minutes. 

Between Syracuse and Buffalo we have double track only at intervals, the greater portion being 
single track. In going in and out of the double-track sections, the train was compelled to run slowly 
over the Wharton switches. These delays, although not computed, will add something to this very 
remarkable run. 

I submit this as the fastest run ever made in the United States or Canada, and I doubt if it ever has 
been equalled in the world. 

W. II. WHEATI.Y, 

Chief Train Dispatcher. 

In order to preserve a permanent and correct record of the remarkable run 
described by Mr. Wheatly, Mr. Layng, the General Manager of the New York, West 
Shore & Buffalo line caused elaborate tables to be made out embodying every important 
fact connected with the performance of their engines, with diagramatic drawings Figs. 



REMARKABLE RUN OF A ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE. 



Si 



234 and 235, showing the principal features of the engines and the table which follows 
them gives their principal dimensions. A transcript was also made from the schedule 



CLASS A (ANTHRACITE) 






f\f ! 5-/>i' JL.. ; f ,\. - f-'j' r t'-f 1 -j-g-^ *-/. 

4-. | if-ty . -4. /?-}' 4 . /'-/ -. 

4 > |^_. ZJ'-ft' H 



Fig. 234. 



CLASS B (B i T u M i M o u s) 







Fig. 235. 



board, of which Fig. 236 is a copy, which shows graphically the movement of the 
train. In this diagram the vertical lines represent time as indicated by the figures in the 
horizontal line above, and the horizontal lines represent the stations or distance. Their 
names are given in the column on the right side of the diagram and their distance from 
Buffalo is given in the column of figures on the left side. The diagonal line through the 
diagram shows the progress of the train. The inclination of this line indicates its speed. 
All the facts relating to this run were given in a large tracing from which blue 
prints were made and from these the diagrams and the tables which follow Fig. 236 
have been reproduced. 



82 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



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REMARKABLE RUN OF A ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE. 



TRANSCRIPT FROM SCHEDULE BOARD. 

10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 


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HENRIETTA. 






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AVANNAH 




MONTE2UMA 




PORT BYRON 


123. 




126.1 \ 






2 P.M. 


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AMBOY 




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J , _ 


EAST UTICA 


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235 7 - - . 


CANAJOHARIC 


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' '- -8PRAKER9 














264.7 -- . 


i _ . _ . _ PATTERSONVILLE 






278.8 


FULLERS 


283.5 

289.8 


\ 
FEURA BUSH 












] 


326. 9 - - - - - 


SAUGERTIES 


937.8 - - .- - __ 


\ MARION 












\ 








NEWBURGH 




\ WEST POINT 












t HAVERSTRAW 




CONGERS 


406.9 - - - - 


ACK TUR PIKE 








ERGEN IELDS 


421 .6 









Fig. 236. 



8 4 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \\ORKS. 






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86 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



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REMARKABLE RUN OF A ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE. 



HUDSON RIVER DIVISION. ! 


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NMOOOOONONLO LOO r--OO N O O OO O ON ro LO 

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of X.U3J 3[jjr i 


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LOL/i-a-Tj-Tt-Tj-ror*"!""! ' 


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a S ^ > e C .^i " ti "> * P ? B > "> w ui 

iiaMMilMiMMI^IIs^ 



88 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 











+ 








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REMARKABLE RUN OF A ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE. 



8 9 



SUMMARIZED RUNNING RECORD. 



ALL DIVISIONS. 



PRINCIPAL STATIONS ONLY. 



DlST. 


STATIONS. 


TIME. 


REMARKS. 


o.o 


BUFFALO, 








3-4 


EAST BUFFALO, 


10.04 


Took train from Niag. Falls branch. 


64-3 


GENESEE Jc., 


II.OO 

11.07 


B. N. Y. & P. Grade crossing. 
Took water and oiled. 


96.8 


NEWARK, 


1 1.41 
11.50 


Changed engines. 


147-7 


SYRACUSE, 


12.48 

I2 -55 


Stopped for lunch and took water. 


194.2 


UTICA, 


i-54 




205.1 


FRANKFORT, 


2.04 

2.10 


Changed engines. 


2 35-7 


CANAJOHARIE, 


2.48 
2. 5 6 


Stopped for water. 




266.5 


ROTTERDAM J., 


3- 2 9 
3- 2 9 


Stopped by block. 


297.8 


COEYMANS, 


4.07 
4-13 


Changed engines. 


337-3 


KINGSTON, 


5-01 




373-7 


CORNWALL, 


6.20 
6.2O 




392.8 


HAVERSTRAW, 


6.50 

6.51 


Stopped by block. 


426.0 


WEEHAWKEN, 7.27 





THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



SUMMARIZED SPEED RECORD. 

WITH DEDUCTIONS AS NOTED. 



ALL DIVISIONS. 



PRINCIPAL STATIONS ONLY. 







q 


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u 













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fa 


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H 


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BUFFALO. 


fa 
s 

PQ 

H 

<s> 
< 

W 


GENESEE J 


NEWARK. 


SYRACUSE. 


4 

o 

H 
13 


FRANKFOR 


CANAJOHA 


ROTTERDA 


COEYMANS 


KINGSTON. 


CORNWALI 


HAVERSTR 


WEEHAWK 


BUFFALO, 


























































EAST BUFFALO 







68 


67 


64 


62 


62 


60 


60 


60 


58 


58 


57 


57 


GENESEE JUN. 









65 


61 


59 


60 


58 


58 


59 


56 


56 


55 


56 


NEWARK, 











59 


57 


59 


57 


57 


58 


55 


55 


54 


55 


SYRACUSE, 













56 


58 


56 


57 


57 


55 


5* 


54 


55 


UTICA, 















73 


55 


57 


58 


54 


54 


53 


54 


FRANKFORT, 

















5i 


55 


57 


53 


53 


5 2 


54 


CANAJOHARIE, 



















60 


60 


54 


54 


53 


54 


ROTTERDAM, J. 





















61 


5 2 


5 1 


5 1 


53 


COEYMANS, 























46 


5 


49 


5 2 


KINGSTON, 

























54 


5* 


55 


CORNWALL, 



























46 


55 


HAVERSTRAW, 





























62 


WEEHAWKEN, 
































REMARKABLE RUN OF A ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE. 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROAD. 



ELEMENTS. 


BUFF. DIV. 


HUD. RIV. DIV. 


ENTIRE 

LINE. 


W. END. 


E. END. 


W. END. 


E. END. 


PROFILE. 












Level, 


16.93 


27.03 


29.94 


42.18 


30.18 


TT / 4.\ ! Percent- 
Up grade (going east) \ tageg _ 


45-59 


37-5 


2 9'59 


30.41 


35- 62 


Down " " " J 


37-48 


35-47 


40.47 


27.41 


34.20 


Up grade " " } Average 
> feet 


16.25 


15.88 


16.36 


16.96 


16.32 


Down grade " " ) per mile. 


18.75 


18.49 


17.66 


22.77 


^S 1 


ALIGNMENT. 












Tangents. ) -r, 
1 Percent- 


82.52 


83-44 


73-85 


84.26 


82.06 


n V tages. 
Curves, ) 


17.48 


16.56 


26.15 


15-74 


17.94 


Curvature : average : degrees : 


i'-2o'- 57 " 


i-46'-n" 


2- 4 '- 4 o" 


r-48'-i7" 


i- 4 6'-34' / 



9 2 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \\ORKS. 



Four different locomotives were used : One of these, number 45, ran from 
Buffalo to Newark, 96.8 miles; another, number 50, took the train from Newark 
to Frankfort, 108.3 miles; the third, engine number 27, was used from Frankfort to 
Coeymans, 9.27, and the last part of the journey from Coeymans to Weehawken, 
128.2 miles was made with engine number 36. Engine number 27 was an anthracite 
coal burner, Fig. 234 with a long fire-box of the type known as Class A, on the 
West Shore road. Nos. 45, 50, and 36 were bituminous coal burners, Fig. 235 desig- 
nated Class B engines. They were all built at the Rogers Locomotive Works in 
Paterson, N. J., from the design of the late Howard Fry. 

Another remarkable run was made by a Rogers engine on the New York, West 
Shore & Buffalo Railway on the 8th of October, 1885, the particulars of which are 
given in the following table from which it will be seen that this train at times attained 
the remarkable speed of 80 miles per hour. The table was prepared for Mr. J. D. 
Layng, the general manager of the line : 

Memorandum of speed made on Special, consisting of Engine No. 43, John Davis, 
Engineer, with Car No. 100, October 8, 1885, on run between Genesee Junction 
and East Buffalo. 



Miles. 


Seconds. 


Miles per H. 


Miles. 


Seconds. 


Miles per H. 


I 


52 


69 


i 


52 


69 


i 


55 


62 


i 


51 


7i 


I 


50 


72 


i 


49 


73 


i 


5> 


71 


i 


47 


77 


I 


53 


68 


i 


50 


72 


I 


49 


73 


i 


45 


80 


I 


50 


72 


i 


45 


80 


I 


50 


72 


i 


45 


80 


I 


49 


73 


i 


50 


72 


I 


53 


68 


i 


48 


75 








i 


52 


69 


IO 


512 


70 


1 1 


534 


74 



THE TRACTIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES. 93 

CHAPTER VIII. 
THE TRACTIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES* 

IT may be stated, generally, that a locomotive exerts its power in drawing trains by 
means of the friction or adhesion of the driving wheels on the rails. Or, to quote 
from Pambour's old "Treatise on Locomotive Engines:" "Two conditions are necessary 
in order that an engine may draw a given load : First, that the dimensions and propor- 
tions of the engine and its boiler enable it to produce on the piston, by means of the 
steam, the necessary pressure, which constitutes what is properly termed the power of the 
engine; and second, that the weight of the engine be such as to give a sufficient 
adhesion to the wheel on the rail. These two conditions of power and weight must be 
in concordance with each other; for, if there is a great power of steam and little 
adhesion, the latter will limit the effect of the engine, and there will be steam lost; if, on 
the other hand, there is too much weight for the steam, that weight will be a useless 
burden, the limit of the load being in that case marked by the steam." 

There is a good deal of difference in the figures given by various authorities to 
indicate the proportion which the friction or adhesion of the wheels on the rails bears to 
the weight on them. The figures which are perhaps used most in practice are those 
published in Molesworth's " Poc.ket-Book of Engineering Formulae." These are as 
follows : 

ADHESION PER TON OF 2,240 LHS. ON THE DRIVING-WHEELS. 

When the rails are very dry, 600 Ibs. per ton 

When the rails are very wet, 550 " " ' ' 

In ordinary English weather, 450 " " " 

In misty -weather, if the rails are greasy, 300 " " " 

In frosty or snowy weather, 200 ' ' " ' ' 

In D. K. Clark's " Manual for Mechanical Engineers, page 724, he gives a report 
of experiments made by M. Poiree on the Paris & Lyons Railroad with a wagon by 
skidding the wheels. Of these experiments Clark says : 

" At speeds under 20 miles per hour it appears from the table that, when the rails are dry, the 
co-efficient of friction, or the adhesion, is one-fifth of the weight, and that on very dry rails it is one-fourth. 
As the speed is increased, the adhesion is reduced. These data are corroborative of the results of the 
author's experiments on the ultimate tractive force of locomotives on dry rails, from which he obtained a 
co-efficient of friction equal to one-fifth of the weight, at speeds of about 10 miles per hour." 

In the paper " On the Effect of Brakes upon Railway Trains " read by Captain 
Galton before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, t the following determination of 

* A considerable portion of this chapter is reprinted from the Railroad Gazette of June 6, 1879. 
t See Engineering of May 2, 1879, Page 371. 



94 THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 

the adhesion of wheels is given. It must be kept in mind, too, that he makes the 
distinction between "adhesive" and sliding friction. By "adhesive" is meant the 
friction between rolling wheels and the track : 

" On dry rails it was found that the co-efficient of adhesion of the wheels was generally over 
0.20. In some cases it rose to 0.25 or even higher. On wet or greasy rails without sand, it fell as low 
as 0.15 in an experiment, but averaged about o. 18. With the use of sand on wet rails it was above 0.20 
at all times ; and when the sand was applied at the moment of starting, so that the wind of the rotating 
wheels did not blow it away, it rose up to 0.35, and even above 0.40." 

This is probably the most correct determination of the adhesion of wheels that 
has ever been made, and shows that the ordinary rule of taking the adhesion at one-fifth 
of the weight in the driving wheels is quite within the limits of ordinary practice. Even 
on a wet or greasy rail, with the use of sand, it was above 0.20 at all times. In fact, if 
we want to calculate the maximum power which a locomotive will exert if the rails are 
sanded, we might take the adhesion at one-third, and under favorable conditions without 
sand would be quite safe at one-fourth. 

In order to put these figures in a form in which they can easily be remembered 
and conveniently used, they may be given as follows : 



ADHESION OF LOCOMOTIVES. 



Under 
the n 



ordinary conditions without using sand on \ ,-. cr ,v t] > .. .> j i , 

., s , , , \ One-fifth the weight on the driving-wheels. 

ails, or on wet sanded rails \ 

Under favorable conditions without sand, > One-fourth the weight on the driving-wheels. 

On a dry, sanded mil, | One-third the weight on the driving-wheels. 

These may be taken as working data, but before the tractive power of a locomo- 
tive can be determined it must be known how much power is required to draw a given 
load over a road with known grades and curves. If the authorities be consulted with 
reference to this point a wider difference even than that relating to the adhesion of 
driving-wheels will be found to exist. Without comparing these, it may be stated that 
the most recent experiments have shown that the resistance of good American cars does 
not exceed 6 Ibs. per ton of 2,000 Ibs. at very slow speeds on a straight and level track, 
and when in the best condition and good weather it is probably not over 4 Ibs. The 
wind, however, has an important influence, and as this is very variable it is hardly safe 
to take the resistance, under the conditions named above, at less than 6 Ibs. per ton. 

With reference to the influence of speed on the resistance, it must be admitted 
that our knowledge is very inexact, and probably the law or laws which govern it are not 
understood. The following rule, though, will give results which do not differ materially 
from those given by the most reliable experiments which have thus far been made. 



THE TRACTIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES. 95 

To get the resistance per ton (of 2,000 Ibs.) of a train on a straight and level 
track at any given speed : 

Square the speed in miles per hour and divide by 171 and add 6. 

To get the resistance per ton due to any grade : 

Multiply the rise in feet per mile by 0.3788 and add the quotient to the resistance 
due to the speed on a straight and level track. 

Our knowledge of the resistance due to curves, like that due to speed, is in a very 
unsatisfactory condition, but the most reliable information we have indicates that the 
resistance is equal to about half a pound per ton per degree of curvature. 

We may then tabulate these calculations as follows : 

RESISTANCE OF TRAINS: 

On straight and level track at veiy low speeds, 6 Ibs. per ton ot 2,000 Ibs. 

For resistance due to speed : Square the speed in miles per hour and 

divide by 1 71, - " " < 

For resistance due to grade: Multiply the rise in feet per mile by 0.3788, " " " 

For resistance due to curves : Add ^ Ib. per degree of curvature, " " " 

Total 



If the radius of the curve is given, the "degree" may be found approximately by 
dividing the radius into 5730. This rule is correct enough for ordinary curves of over 
500 feet radius. 

Having these data, suppose we want to calculate how much, say, a Consolidation 
engine will pull up a grade of 70 feet per mile, with 9 curves and at a speed of 20 miles 
per hour. The first question to determine will be whether we want to know the 
maximum load which such an engine will draw, or what it will do in good weather, or 
what it will do at all times, excepting in snow storms. In the first case we would take 
the adhesion at 1/3 the weight on the driving-wheels; in the second at %", and in the 
last case at . We will assume that the second represents our hypothetical case, and 
that the locomotive has a weight of n,ooo Ibs. on each driving-wheel, or a total of 
88,000 Ibs. The adhesion would therefore be one-fourth of 88,000 lbs.= 22,000 Ibs. 
The train resistance per ton would be as follows : 

Resistance on straight and level track = 6.0 Ibs. 

20 X 20 

" due to speed = = 2.3 " 

171 

" " " grade = 70X0.3788 = 26.5 " 

" " " curve = 9 X > = 4-5" 



Total 39.3 Ibs. 

Therefore, as each ton will have a resistance of 39.3 Ibs., and as our engine is 
capable of exerting a tractive force of 22,000 Ibs., the total load which it can pull 
would be represented by 



22,000 

= 559.8 tons. 

393 



96 THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 

As the engine and tender weigh about 72 tons, the train which our engine will 
pull will be represented by 559.8 72 = 487.8. Of course, to do this work the 
cylinders must be large enough to turn the wheels, and the boiler have the requisite 
capacity to supply steam. It is very rare that a locomotive has not cylinder capacity 
sufficient to turn the wheels. It happens much oftener that the cylinders of Locomotives 
are too large instead of too small. This is due to the fact that the boiler pressure has of 
late years been much increased while the size of the cylinders has not been diminished 
in the same proportion. 

The table on the following page, which gives the resistance in Ibs. per ton (of 2,000 
Ibs.) is taken from Forney's Catechism of the Locomotive, and was calculated by the 
rules given above. The various speeds are indicated in the headings at the tops of the 
columns, and the rate of gradients, that is the rise in feet per mile is given in the first 
column on the left. The resistance on a grade of say 50 feet per mile, and a speed of 
20 miles per hour can be found on the horizontal line opposite the figure 50 in the first 
column and in the column under the heading of that speed, and is 27.2 Ibs. per ton. 

The simplest way to calculate how heavy a train a locomotive will pull under 
ordinary conditions of weather is to divide the weight on all the driving wheels by 4, 
which will give their adhesion to the rails. Then divide this by the resistance for the 
required grade and speed, taken from the table. If curves and grades occur simultaneously, 
add to the resistance given in the table y 2 Ib. for each degree of the curve. The quotient 
will be the weight of the train including that of the tender and locomotive, which 
the latter will pull on the grade and at the speed given. 

The capacity of the Rogers engines, in the tables on the following pages, is 
calculated for an adhesion equal to one-fourth of the weight on the driving wheels. 
The maximum capacity of these engines, under very favorable conditions, will be some- 
what greater than that given in the tables. 



THE TRACTIVE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES. 



97 



TABLE OF RESISTANCES OF RAILROAD TRAINS, 

ON A STRAIGHT TRACK, 

WITH DIFFERENT GRADES AND SPEEDS. 



w 


II ill 


















"I- : * k c o.^> 




















C O 3 

I '-s 


D 


3 
O 


O 


o 


3 
O 


3 






o 








o 


2 i 3*0 


C *-* 


.C 


fj 


? 





.c 


"f. "I 


? 


_c 


Js 


A 




8 8,-r 


'33 rt ul 


& 


0. 


o. 


a, 


0. 


a a 


0. 


0. 


a 


a. 


"o ^ 
u 


I-Sfi 


V - 3 ; "> 

58* - 


1 


V 


V 


11 


i/i in 

V V 


1 


OJ 


S 


V 


a 


won 


fb'S E 


E 


E 





E 


E 


E 





E 


E 





o O 


r- 1 D.O. 2 


H 


8 


c? 


o 

CO 


8 


\T) 


ft 




p^ 


















\ 




! 







6.1; 6.6 


7-3 


8-3 


9.6 


II. 2 


I3-I 


15-3 


I 7 .8 


20.6 


27.0 34.6 


5 


1.8 


7-9 8.4 


9.1 


IO. I 


11.4 


13.0 


14.9 17.1 


19.6 


22.4 


28.8 


3 6 -4 


10 


3-7 


9.8 to. 3 


II. O 


12. 


13-4 


14.9 


16.8 19.0 


21-5 


243 


3-7 


38.3 


15 


56 


II-7 12.2 


12.9 


13-9 


15.2 


16.8 


18.7 21.9 


24.4 


27-2 33.6 


41.2 


20 


7-5 


13.6 14.1 


14.8 


I 5 .8 


17.1 


18.7 


20.6 


22.8 25.3 


281 34-5 


42.1 


25 


9-4 


15.5 16.0 


16.7 


17.7 


19 o 


20. 6 


22.5 


24.7 


27-2 3 1 - 374 


45- 


3 


1J -3 


17.4 17.9 


18.6 


19.6 


21.9 


22.5 


24.4 26.6 


29.1 31.9 38.3 


45-9 


35 


13.2 


19.3 198 


20.5 


21.5 


22.8 


24.4 26.3 28.5 


31.0 33.8 40.2 


47-8 


40 


I5- 1 


21.2 21.7 


22 4 


23-4 


24.7 


26.3 28.21 30.4 


32-9 35-7J 42.i 


49-7 


45 


17.0 


23.1 236 


24-3 


2 53 


26.6 


28.2 30.1 323 


34.8 37.6 44.0 


51.6 


5 


189 


2 5-; 25.5 


26.2 


27.2 


28.5 


30.1 32.01 34.2 


3 6 -7 39-5 459 


535 


60 


22.7 


28.8 


2 93 


30.0 


31.0 


32-3 


33-9 1 35-8i 38-0 


40.5 43-5 49-9 


57-5 


70 


26.5 


32-6 33 i 


33-8 


34-8 36-1 


37-7 39- 6 | 41-8 


44-3 47- 1 53 5 


61.1 


80 


3-3 


3 6 -4 3 6 9 


37-6 


38.6 


399 


40.5 42.4 44.6 


47.1 49.9 56.3 


6 39 


90 


340 


41 o 


40 6 


41-3 


42.3 


436 


45-2 


47.1 


49-3 


51.8 54.6! 6i.o| 68.6 


100 


37-8 


439 


444 


45- 1 


46.1 


47-4 


49-0 5 J -9 


54.1 


56.6 59.4 65.8 


73-4 


I 10 


41.6 


47-7 


48.2 


48.9 


49-9 


51.2 


52-8! 54-7 


5 6 -9 


59-4 


62.2 


68.6 


76.2 


120 


454 


5 : -5 


52.0 


S 2 -? 


53-7 


55-o 


566 58.5 60.7 


63.2 


66. o 


72.4 


80.0 


I 3 


49 2 


55-3 


558 


56.5 


57-5 


588 


60.4 


62.3 64.5 


67.0 69.8 76.2 


83.8 


140 


530 


59- 1 


59- 6 


60.3 


6i-3 


62.6 


642 


66.il 683 


70.8 73 6 80.0 


87.6 


150 


56.8 


62.9 63.4 


64.1 


65-1 


66.4 


68.0 


69 9 72.1 


746 


77-4: 83.8 


91.4 


1 60 


60.6 


66.7 67.2 


67.9 


68.9 


70.2 


7 1 - 8 73-7! 75-9 


78.4 


81.2 87.6 


95-2 


170 


64-3 


70.4 70.9 


71.6 


72.6 


739 


75-5 


77.41 79- 6 


82.1 84.9 91.3 98.9 


1 80 68.1 


74-2 74-7 


75-4 


76.4 


77-7 


79.3 81.2 83.4 


85-9 88.7 95.1102.7 


190 i 71.9 


78.0 78.5 


79-2 


80.2 


81.5 


83.1 85.0 87.2 


89.7 92.5 98.9 


106.5 


200 


75-7 


81.8; 82.3 


83.0 


840: 85.3 


86.9 


88.8 


91.0 


93-5 9 6 -3 


102.7 


110.3 


2IO 


79-5 


85.6 86 i 


86.8 87.8 89.1 


90.7 


92.6 


94-8 


97.3 100.1 


106.5 


114.1 


22O 


83-3 


89.4 899 


90.6 


91.6 92.9 


94-5 


96.4 


98.6 


IOI.I 


103.9 


110.3 


117.6 


230 


87.1 


93 2 93 7 


94-4 


95-4 9 6 -7 


98.3 IOO.2 IO2.4 


104.9 107.7 


1 14.1 


121.7 


240 


90.8 


96.9 97.4 


98.1 99.1 100.4 


102.01103.9 106. i 


108.611 1 1.4 


117.8 


125-4 


250 


94.6 


100.7 


IOI.2 


101.9 102.9 103.2 


105.8 107.71109.9 


II2.4JII5-2 


121. 6 


129.2 


260 


98.4 


104.5 


105.0 


105.7 106.7 107.0 


108.6 


110.5 


112.7 


115.2 118.0 


124.4 


132.0 


270 


IO2.2 


108.3 


108.8 


i9-5 


110.5 in. 8 


113.4 


115.3 


"7-5 


I2O.O 


122.8 


129.2 


136.8 


280 


106.0 


112. 1 


112. 6 


113.3 


114.3)115.6 


117.2 


119.1 


121.3 


123.8 


126.6 


133.0 


140.6 


290 


109.8 


II5.9 116.4 


117.1 


118.1 119.4 


121. 


122.9 


125.1 


127.6 


I3 -4 


136.8 


144.4 


3 


II3.6 


II9.7 


120.2 


120.9 


121.9 


123.2 


124.8 


126.7 


128.9 


I3I-4 


134.2 


140.6 148.2 



PLATES 



AND 



TABLES OF DIMENSIONS 
AND CAPACITY 



OF 



LOCOMOTIVES. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

PLATES AND TABLES OF DIMENSIONS AND CAPACITY OF LOCOMOTIVES OF 
4 FT., 8y IN. GAUGE OR WIDER. 

IN the following tables the principal dimensions, weight, etc., and the 
calculated capacity for hauling loads is given for the different classes of 
locomotives manufactured by the Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works. In 
making the calculations the adhesion of the engines as mentioned in the 
preceding chapter, was taken at one-fourth the weight on the driving wheels. 
Experience has shown that the adhesion of the driving wheels is fully equal to 
that proportion of the weight on them, in good weather and under favorable 
conditions. The calculations are made for straight lines and for the grades and 
speeds specified in each table. An allowance, which has been explained in the 
previous chapter, must be made for curves. 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



103 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 



FOR PASSENGERS. 



Gauge 4 ft, 8>^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shozvn by Plate I. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ihs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


15 X 22 


66 


7 ft. 9 in. 


21 ft. 4 in. 


41200 


23200 


64400 


I8OO 


15X24 


66 


7 ft. 9 in. 


21 ft. 8 in. 


42200 


23400 


65600 


2OOO 


16X22 


66 


7 ft. 9 in. 


21 ft. 7 in. 


43200 


23400 


66600 


2OOO 


16X24 


66 


8ft. 


22 ft. 


44200 


24400 


68600 


22OO 


I/X 22 


66 


8 ft. 


21 ft. 9^ in. 


45200 


24400 


69600 


22OO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 30 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


lOOft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


869 


640 


5OO 


34i 


253 


203 


159 


125 


IOO 


888 


654 


510 


347 


257 


206 


161 


126 


IOI 


910 


671 


523 


357 


264 


213 


1 66 


130 


105 


940 


685 


534 


363 


269 


216 


1 68 


131 


105 


950 


700 


546 


372 


275 


221 


173 


135 


1 08 



IO4 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




^ 

si 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



105 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 



FOR PASSENGERS. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8>2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate II. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


17X24 


66 


8 ft. 6 in. 


22ft. 8^ in. 


48700 


270OO 


75700 


2300 


18X22 


66 


8 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 6y 2 in. 


49200 


272OO 


76400 


2300 


18X24 


66 


8 ft. 6 in. 


22 f. i \]/ 2 in 


52400 


27600 


8OOOO 


2600 


19X22 


66 


8 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 7^ in. 


53000 


28OOO 


8IOOO 


2600 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 30 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1024 


754 


588 


400 


296 


237 


185 


145 


116 


1035 


762 


595 


405 


300 


241 


188 


47 


118 


IIOI 


8n 


632 


430 


3i8 


256 


199 


155 


125 


1114 


820 


640 


435 


322 


258 


20 1 


157 


126 



io6 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



lO/ 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 

FOR PASSENGERS OR FREIGHT. 



Gauge 4 ft, &*/2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate III. 





Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 




and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 

Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


I 


15X24 


56 


7 ft. 9 in. 


2 1 ft. 7 in. 


41000 


23000 


64000 


2OOO 


2 


16X22 


56 


7 ft. 9 in. 


2 1 ft. 6 in. 


42000 


23000 


65000 


2000 


3 


16X24 


56 


8 ft. 


2 1 ft. ii in. 


43000 24000 


67000 


22OO 


4 


17X22 


56 


8 ft. 


21 ft. 91^ in. 


44000 24000 


68OOO 


22OO 


5 


17X24 


56 


8 ft. 3 in. 


22 ft. 4^ in. 


47500 


26500 


74000 


2300 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


1184 


803 


598 


387 


280 


214 


171 


133 


I O6 


1212 


822 


611 


396 


286 


219 


175 


135 


1 08 


1239 


840 


624 


403 


291 


222 


177 


137 


IO9 


1268 


861 


639 


413 


298 


228 


182 


140 


I 12 


1368 


927 


689 


445 32i 


246 


195 


151 


I2O 



io8 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \\ORKS. 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 

FOR PASSENGERS OR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8>2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design slioivn by Plate III. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ihs. 


On 

Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


15X22 


62 


7 ft. 9 in. 


21 ft. 3 in. 


40700 


23000 


63700 


I800 


15x24 


62 


7 ft. 9 in. 


21 ft. 7 in. 


41700 


23200 


64900 


2000 


16X22 


62 


7 ft. 9 in. 


21 ft 6 in. 


42700 


23200 


65900 


2000 


16X24 


62 


8ft 


2 1 ft. 1 1 in. 


43700 


24200 


67900 


22OO 


17X22 


62 


8ft 


21 ft. 9% in. 


44700 


24200 


68900 


22OO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 rniles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


1175 


797 


593 


384 


277 


213 


170 


I 3 2 


105 


1203 


816 


607 


392 


283 


217 


173 


134 


107 


1232 


835 


622 


402 


290 


222 


177 


138 


I IO 


1259 


853 


634 


410 


295 


226 


I 80 


139 


II I 


1289 


873 


649 


420 


302 


231 


184 


143 


114 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 

FOR PASSENGERS OR FREIGHT. 



Gauge 4 ft, 8^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate III. 



Cylinders. Dia'eter 
f Wheel Base. 
Diameter . 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. Of 
Driving 
inches. Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


17X24 


62 


8 ft. 3 in. 


22 ft. 4^ in. 


48200 


26800 


75000 


2300 


18X22 


62 


8 ft. 3 in. 


22ft. 3>^in. 


48500 


27000 


75500 


2300 



I 


Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


looft. 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


1389 


942 


701 


453 


327 


249 


199 


154 


123 


2 


1397 


947 


704 


455 


328 


251 


2OO 


155 


123 


3 




















4 




















5 





















110 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Ill 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 



FOR PASSENGERS. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8>2 in. or wider. Fuel, Anthracite Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate IV. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


17X22 


66 


8ft. 


21 ft. ii in. 


59500 


23500 


83000 


22OO 


17X24 


66 


8ft. 


22 ft. i y 2 in. 


63OOO 


25000 


88000 


23OO 


18X22 


66 


8ft. 


21 ft. ii in. 


63OOO 


25000 


88000 


2300 


18X24 


66 


8 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 9^ in. 


64OOO 


32500 


96500 


26OO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 30 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1264 


934 


731 


502 


375 


303 


239 


190 


155 


1337 


988 


773 


530 


396 


320 


252 


200 


163 


1337 


988 


773 


530 


396 


320 


252 


200 


163 


1352 


997 


780 


532 


396 


3i9 


250 


197 


159 



I 12 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 

FOR PASSENGERS OR FREIGHT. 

Gauge, 4 ft, S)4 in. or wider. Fuel, Anthracite Coal. 

General Design shown by Plate V. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ihs. 


On 
Truck. 

11)S. 


Total. 
Ihs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


16x24 


62 


8ft. 


22 ft. I y> in. 


59500 


23500 


83000 


2 2OO 



I 


Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 30 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


i oft. 


20 ft. 

731 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


1 25 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1264 


934 


501 


375 


303 


239 


190 


155 


2 




















3 




















4 




















5 





















114 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Mogul Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge 4 ft, 8j^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shoivn by Plate VI. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


16X24 


48 


I4ft. loin 


22ft. 4 in. 


57000 


13000 


70000 


2 200 


17X24 


48 


15 ft. 


22 ft. 6 in. 


60500 


13500 


74OOO 


2300 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


TOO ft 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


1659 


1 129 


844 


549 


401 


3ii 


251 


197 


1 6O 


1760 


1198 


895 


584 


426 


330 


266 


2IO 


170 



n6 



TIIK ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Mogul Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 

Gauge, 4 ft, 8 l /2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design sJioivn by Plate VI. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weigiit, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ihs. 


On 
Truck. 

11)S. 


Total. 
Ihs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 

Cals. 


18x24 


50 


15 ft. 2 in. 


22 ft. 8 in. 


66500 


14500 


SiOOO 


2600 



1 


Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


1 00 ft. 


1 2 5 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1935 


1317 


984 


642 


468 


363 


293 


230 


187 


2 




















3 




















4 




















5 





















THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \VORKS. 



117 



Mogul Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft., &}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate VI. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 

Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 

Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


18X24 


54 


15 ft. 2 in. 


22 ft. 9 in. 


67800 


I420O 


82OOO 


2600 


19X22 


54 


12 ft. I O in 


20 ft. 5 y 2 in. 


68000 


I440O 


82400 


2600 


19X24 


54 


15 ft. 4 in. 


23ft. 


70000 


16000 


86OOO 


3000 


20X24 


54 


1 5 ft. 6 in. 


23 ft. 2 in. 


78400 


19950 


98350 


3000 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 rniles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1973 


1343 


1003 


655 


478 


370 


299 


235 


191 


1979 


1347 


1006 


657 


480 


371 


300 


236 


192 


2034 


1384 


1033 


674 


490 


379 


306 


240 


195 


2281 


1553 


I I 6O 


758 


552 


428 


345 


272 


221 



nS 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



119 



Mogul Locomotives 



FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft, & l / 2 in. or wider. Fuel, Anthracite Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate VII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 


On 

Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


18X24 


48 


13 ft. 6 in. 


20 ft. IO in. 


73000 


I20OO 


85000 


26OO 


19X24 


48 


1 3 ft. 6 in. 


20 ft. loin. 


78000 


13000 


91000 


26OO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


looft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


2127 


1449 


1084 


709 


518 


402 


325 


257 


209 


2275 


i55i 


I 1 60 


759 


555 


431 


349 


276 


226 





















I2O 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft., S l /2 in. or wider. Fuel, Anthracite Coal. 



General Design sJiown by Plate VII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 

Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


19X24 


54 


13 ft. 6 in. 


20 ft. loin. 


79500 


13500 


93000 


3000 


20X24 


54 


14 ft 


21 ft. 6 l / 2 in. 


85500 


14500 


I OOOOO 


3000 



Load in tons of 2OOO pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 rniles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


2316 


1578 


1179 


771 


563 


437 


353 


279 


227 


2494 


1696 


1268 


832 


608 


473 


383 


303 


247 



122 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




I 

8 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



I2 3 



Ten Wheel Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 

Gauge, 4 ft, 8>^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate VIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 

Gals. 


16X24 


50 


1 2 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 9 in. 


54000 


18500 


72500 


22OO 


17X22 


50 


1 2 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 8 in. 


54000 


19000 


73000 


22OO 


17X24 


50 


1 3 ft. 3 in. 


23 ft. 5 in. 


56500 


2IOOO 


77500 


2300 


18X22 


50 


1 3 ft. 3 in. 


23 ft. 4 in. 


57OOO 


2IOOO 


78000 


2300 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1567 


1066 


795 


518 


376 


291 


234 


183 


148 


1582 


1076 


803 523 


380 294 


.236 


1 86 


150 


1637 


1113 


830 540 


393 302 


242 


189 


153 


1652 


1123 


838 


543 


396 


305 


245 


192 


155 



124 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Ten Wheel Locomotives 



FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate VIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 

Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


16X24 


54 


1 2 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 9 in. 


55000 


18500 


73500 


22OO 


I/X 22 


54 


12 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 8 in. 


54800 


19200 


74000 


22OO 


17X24 


54 


1 3 ft. 3 in. 


23 ft. 5 in. 57000 


2I50O 78500 


2300 


18X22 


54 


1 3 ft. 3 in. 


23ft. 4 in. 


57500 


2I5OO 7900O 


2300 


18X24 


54 


1 3 ft. 4 in. 


23 ft. 6 in. 61500 


23500 


85000 


2600 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1596 


1085 


810 


528 


383 


296 


238 


187 


151 


1590 


1081 


807 


525 


382 


295 


237 


1 86 


150 


1652 


1123 


838 


545 


396 


305 


245 


192 


155 


1667 


H33 


846 


550. 


400 


308 


248 


194 


157 


1782 


121 I 


903 


587 


426 


328 


263 


206 


1 66 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



125 



FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft., 8>-2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate VIII. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


19X24 


54 


13 ft. 6 in. 


23 ft. 8 in. 


65000 


25OOO 


90000 


3000 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


lOOft. 


1 2 5 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1881 


1278 


952 


618 


448 


345 


276 


216 


174 



126 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



127 



Ten Wheel Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 

Gauge, 4 ft, S}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Wood. 
General Design shown by Plate IX. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 
and 

Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


16X24 


56 


12 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 9 in. 


55500 


18500 


74OOO 


2200 


17x22 


56 1 2 ft. 6 in. 


22 ft. 8 in. 


55700 


19300 


75OOO 


22OO 


17x24 


56 1 3 ft. 3 in. 


23 ft. 5 in. 


58000 


21500 


79500 


23OO 


18X22 


56 1 3 ft. 3 in. 


23 ft. 4 in. 


58500 


21500 


8OOOO 


23OO 


18X24 


56 


13 ft. 4 in. 


23ft. 6 in. 


62500 


23500 


86000 


26OO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


161 1 


1096 


818 


533 


387 


299 


241 


189 


153 


1616 


1099 


820 


534 


388 


300 


241 


189 


153 


1682 


1143 


853 


555 


403 


3ii 


249 


195 


159 


1697 


1153 


861 


560 


407 


3H 


252 


197 


1 60 


1811 


1231 


922 


597 


433 


333 


268 


209 


169 



128 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Ten Wheel Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 

Gauge, 4 ft, 8}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Wood. 
General Design shown by Plate IX. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 

of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. Of 
Driving 
inches. Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ihs. 


Total. 

Ihs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
GaK 


19X22 


56 : 13 ft. 4 in. 


23 ft. 6 in. 


63500 


245OO 


88000 


2600 


19X24 


56 


13 ft. 6 in. 


23 ft. Sin. 


68800 


252OO 


94OOO 


3000 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


lOOft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1840 


1250 


932 


606 


440 


339 


272 


213 


171 


1994 


1355 


IOIO 


657 


477 


367 


295 


231 


1 86 



130 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




a! 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Ten Wheel Locomotives 



FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8>2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate X. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 

Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


IQX 24 


50 


15 ft. I in. 


26ft. 


76000 


I6OOO 


92OOO 


2600 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft 


IOO ft 


125 ft 


1 50 ft. 


2215 


1509 


1128 


738 


539 


418 


338 


267 


218 



132 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Ten Wheel Locomotives 



FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8 l /2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate X. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ihs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ihs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


20X24 


54 


15 ft. 5 in. 


26ft. 3 y 2 in. 


800OO 


I8OOO 


98000 


3000 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


i oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


i 50 ft. 


2329 


1586 


1185 


775 


565 


438 


354 


279 


227 



134 



THE .ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




s 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



'35 



Consolidation Locomotive 

FOR FREIGHT. 

Gauge, 4 ft., 8}^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate XL 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


20X24 


50 


1 4 ft. 9 in. 


22 ft. loin. 


86500 


13500 


I OOOOO 


3000 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 15 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


IOO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


2881 


1884 


1380 


884 


640 


494 


398 


314 


256 



136 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



137 



Consolidation Locomotive 

FOR FREIGHT. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Anthracite Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XII. 



I 


Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 

Gals. 


20X24 


50 


1 4 ft. 9 in. 


22 ft. loin. 


92800 


13600 


106400 


3OOO 


2 


















3 


















4 


















5 



















I 


Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 15 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


3094 


2025 


1483 


951 


689 


533 


430 


340 


278 


2 




















3 




















4 




















5 





















138 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




I 

s 

^ 

SI 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



139 



FOR SWITCHING. 



Gauge, 4 ft., 8^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


12X20 


46 


7 ft. 


7 ft. 


41500 




41500 


1200 


12X22 


46 


7 ft. 


7 ft. 


43500 




43500 


1200 


13X22 


46 


7 ft. 


7ft 


45500 




45500 


I20O 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft 


I OO ft. 


125 ft 


I 50 ft 


1554 


983 


709 


448 


322 


248 


201 


159 


130 


1629 


1031 


743 


470 


338 


261 


21 I 


167 


136 


1704 


1078 


778 


492 


354 


274 


221 


175 


143 



140 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Four Wheel Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Gauge, 4 ft., 8>^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate XIII. 





Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 




and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 




Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


I 


12X20 


50 


7 ft. 


7ft. 


43000 




43000 


I2OO 


2 


12X22 


50 


7 ft. 


7ft. 


44000 




44000 


I2OO 


3 


13X22 


50 


7 ft. 


7 ft. 


46000 




46000 


I2OO 


4 


14X22 


50 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


48000 




48000 


1500 


5 


15X22 


50 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


51000 




51000 


1500 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


I59i 


1006 


725 


458 


330 


254 


205 


l62 


133 


1629 


1030 


743 


470 


338 


261 


211 


I6 7 


136 


1704 


1078 


778 


492 


354 


274 


221 


175 


143 


1777 


i 124 


810 


512 


368 


284 


229 


182 


148 


1888 


1194 


861 


545 


392 


303 


244 


194 


150 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



141 



Four Wheel Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Gauge, 4 ft., 8>2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate XIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 

Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


15x24 


50 7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


54OOO 




54OOO 


1800 


16X22 


50 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


54OOO 




54OOO 


1800 


16X24 


50 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


55500 




55500 


1800 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1999 


1264 


911 


576 


415 


320 


258 


204 


167 


1999 


1264 


911 


576 


415 


320 


258 


204 


167 


2074 


1312 


946 


598 


431 


332 


268 


213 


174 



142 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Four Wheel Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 



Gauge, 4 ft., 8>^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


15x24 


54 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


54500 




54500 


1800 


16X22 


54 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


54500 




54500 


1800 


16X24 


54 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


560OO 




56000 


2OOO 



I 


Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


1 00 ft. 


1 25 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


2036 


1287 


928 


587 


422 


326 


263 


208 


170 


2 


2036 


1287 


928 


587 


422 


326 


263 


208 


170 


3 


2072 


1310 


944 


596 


429 


330 


266 


21 I 


172 


4 




















5 





















144 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




S! 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Six Wheel Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Gauge, 4 ft, &J/2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate XIV. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 
Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


I I X 16 


31 


I oft. 3 in. 


10 ft. 3 in. 


39000 




39OOO 


I2OO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


lOOft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


H43 


913 


657 


415 


299 


230 


185 


147 


119 



146 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Six Wheel Locomotives 



FOR SWITCHING. 



Gauge, 4 ft., S}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design skozvn by Plate XIV. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 

Ihs. 




Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


IIX 16 


44 


i oft. 3 in. 


10 ft. 3 in. 


4OOOO 




40000 


I2OO 


14X22 


44 


I oft. 3 in. 


IO ft. 3 in. 


61500 




61500 


I5OO 


15X22 


44 


i oft. 3 in. 


I oft. 3 in. 


64500 




64500 


I5OO 


16X20 

1 


44 


i oft. 3 in. 


10 ft. 3 in. 


65000 




65000 


I5OO 



I 


Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 

Level. 


i oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1480 


936 


6/4 


426 


306 


236 


191 


151 


123 


2 


2300 


1460 


1052 


666 


481 


372 


301 


236 


196 


3 


2375 


1504 


1085 


688 


497 


383 


311 


248 


205 


4 


2412 


1528 


IIO2 


699 


505 


390 


316 


251 


207 


5 





















THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Six Wheel Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Gauge, 4 ft, % l / 2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate XIV. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


14X22 


46 


I oft. 3 in. 


10 ft. 3 in. 


63000 




63000 


1500 


15X22 


46 


i oft. 3 in. 


i oft. 3 in. 


65500 




65500 


1500 


16X20 


46 


i oft. 3 in. 


i oft. 3 in. 


66OOO 




66OOO 


1500 


16X22 


46 


loft. 3 in. 


i oft. 3 in. 


68OOO 




68OOO 


1800 


16X24 


46 


i oft. 7 in. 


I oft. 7 in. 


72000 




72000 


1800 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft 


1 50 ft. 


2338 


1481 


IO69 


678 


489 


379 


307 


244 


200 


2450 


i55i 


I I 2O 


7IO 


513 


397 


322 


256 


210 


2450 


i55i 


I I 2O 


7IO 


5U 


397. 


322 


256 


2IO 


2523 


1597 


H53 


730 


527 


408 


330 


262 


215 


2672 


1692 


1222 


774 


559 


433 


350 


279 


229 



148 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Six Wheel Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Gauge, 4 ft., 8}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design sJiown by Plate XIV. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 

Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ihs. 




Total. 

Ihs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


17X22 ; 46 IO ft. 3 in. 


10 ft. 3 in. 


72500 




72500 


I8OO 


17x24 46 


loft. 7 in. 


IO ft. 7 in. 


78000 




78000 


1800 


18X22 ' 46 


IO ft. 3 in. 


10 ft. 3 in. 


78800 




78800 


2OOO 


18X24 46 i oft. 7 in. 


10 ft. 7 in. 


84000 




84000 


2OOO 


19X22 


46 


I Oft. 3 in. 


i oft. 3 in. 


85000 




85000 


2300 



Load in tons of 2OOO pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at IO miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


i oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


2672 


1692 


1222 


774 


559 


433 


350 


279 


229 


2896 


1835 


'324 


841 


607 


470 


381 


304 


249 


2932 


1856 


1339 


849 


613 


474 


384 


305 


261 


3118 


1975 


1426 


905 


654 


506 


411 


326 


268 


3152 


1996 


1440 


912 


658 


509 


412 


327 268 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



149 



Six Wheel Locomotives 



FOR SWITCHING. 



Gauge, 4 ft., Sj/2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design s/iozvn by Plate XIV. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 
Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


14X22 


50 


i oft. 3 in. 


10 ft. 3 in. 64000 




64000 


1500 


15 X 22 


50 


I oft. 3 in 


10 ft. 3 in. 66500 




66500 


1500 


16x20 


50 


10 ft. 3 in. 


i oft. 3 in. 67000 




67000 


1500 


16X22 


50 


i oft. 3 in. 


I oft. 3 in. 69000 




69000 


1800 


16X24 


50 


10 ft. 7 in. 


i oft. 7 in. 73000 




73000 


1800 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 rniles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


2375 


1504 


1085 


688 


497 


383 


3ii 


248 


205 


2450 


1551 


I 120 


710 


5U 


397 


322 


256 


2IO 


2486 


1575 


1137 


721 


521 


403 


326 


260 


213 


2559 


1620 


I 169 


741 


535 


4U 


335 


266 


218 


2709 


1716 


1238 


785 


567 


439 


355 


283 


232 



150 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Six Wheel Locomotives 



FOR SWITCHING. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8>2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XI}'. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 

of 
Driving 

Wheels, 
inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ihs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 

(lals. 


17X22 


50 


I oft. 7 in. 


10 ft. 7 in. 


7400O 




74000 


I8OO 


17x24 


50 


10 ft. / in. 


10 ft. 7 in. 


79000 




79000 


1800 


18X22 


50 


10 ft. 7 in. 


10 ft. 7 in. 


80OOO 




8OOOO 


20OO 


18X24 


50 


i oft. 7 in. 


10 ft. 7 in. 


85000 




85000 


2000 


19X22 


50 


i oft. 7 in. 


I oft. 7 in. 


86500 




86500 


2300 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


100 ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 

i 


2747 


1740 


1256 


796 


575 


445 


36i 


287 


236 


2933 


1858 


1341 


8 5 I 


615 


476 


386 


307 


253 


2969 


1880 


1357 


861 


622 


481 


389 


310 


254 


3155 


1999 


H43 


915 


66 1 


512 


415 


330 


271 


3189 


2019 


H56 


923 


666 


5'5. 


416 


33i 


271 



152 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Four Wheel Tank Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Gauge, 4 ft, S}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design sJunvn by Plate XV. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


lO^X 18 


34 


6 ft. 6 in. 


6ft. 6 in. 


43000 




43000 


5OO 


IIX 18 


46 


6ft. 6 in. 


6ft. 6 in. 


46000 




46000 


5OO 


14X22 


46 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


54000 




54000 


550 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 
1 b ! 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1606 


1 02 1 


740 


473 


345 


269 


220 


177 


148 


1719 


1093 


793 


507 


369 


289 


236 


190 


158 


2018 


1283 


930 


595 


434 


339 


277 


223 


1 86 



'54 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Four Wheel Tank Locomotives 



FOR SWITCHING. 



Gauge, 4 ft., %yl in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



(lateral Design sliown by Plate XV. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


liX 18 


50 


6 ft. 6 in. 


6 ft. 6 in. 


46800 




46800 


500 


14X22 50 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


54800 




54800 


550 


15X22 50 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


58500 




58500 


600 


16X22 


50 


7 ft. 6 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. 


62000 




62000 


650 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


150 ft. 


1756 


1 1 16 


809 


517 


377 


294 


241 


194 


162 


2055 


1306 


929 


606 


441 


345 


282 


227 


189 


2204 


1402 


1016 


650 


473 


370 


302 


244 


203 


2317 


1473 


1069 


683 


498 


339 


3i8 


256 


213 





















i S 6 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




^ 

aj 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



157 



Six Wheel Tank Locomotives 



FOR SWITCHING. 



Gauge, 4 ft., 8^2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design sJioivn by Plate XVI. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 




Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


IIX 18 


46 


I Oft. 


I oft. 


50000 




50000 


5OO 


14X22 


46 


I oft. 


I Oft. ; /OOOO 




70000 


5OO 


15X22 


46 


I oft. 


I oft. 


73000 




73000 


6OO 


16X22 


46 


I Oft. 


I Oft. 


76000 




76000 


650 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


.1868 


1188 


86 3 


551 


4O2 


3i6 


257 


207 


172 


2616 


1664 


1206 


770 


563 


439 


359 


290 


242 


2728 


1734 


1257 


804 


586 


453 


374 


302 


252 


2840 


1806 


1309 


837 


611 


477 


390 


3H 


262 



158 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Six Wheel Tank Locomotives 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Gauge, 4 ft, S l /4 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate XVI. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 




Total. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 










Ihs. 




Ibs. 


Gals. 


II X 18 


50 


I oft. 7 in. 


loft. 7 in. 


52OOO 




52000 


5OO 


14X22 


50 


i oft. 7 in. 


i oft. 7 in. 


7I6OO 




7I60O 


5OO 


15X22 


50 


10 ft. 7 in. 


10 ft. 7 in. 


746OO 




7460O 


6OO 


16X22 


50 


i oft. 7 in. 


i oft. 7 in. 


780OO 




78OOO 


650 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


'943 


1236 


896 


573 


418 


326 


267 


215 179 


2691 


171 1 


1240 


793 


578 


452 


369 


298 


248 


2802 


1782 


1291 


826 602 


470 


384 


310 


258 


2915 


1854 


1344 


860 


626 


489 


400 


323 


269 



i6o 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




si 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Eight Wheel Double- Ender 

TANK LOCOMOTIVE. 

Gauge, 4 ft, % l / 2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shozvn by Plate XVII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 

and 
RearTruck 
Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


13^X22 


46 


6 ft. 6 in. 


2O ft 9 in. 


42200 


^ 9800 


64000 


70O 


15X22 


46 


6 ft. 8 in. 


21 ft. 


43500 


C 14000 

( IO5OO 


68OOO 


7OO 


16X22 


46 


7ft. 


21 ft 6 in. 


46500 


( 14500 
( I IOOO 


72OOO 


750 



Load in tons of 2OOO pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 rniles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 


















Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft 


1239 


847 


6 3 6 


419 


308 


241 


197 


157 


130 


1276 


872 


654 


432 


317 


248 


202 


161 


133 


1364 


933 


7OO 


461 


339 


265 


215 


173 


142 



162 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE \YOKKS. 



Eight Wheel Double -Ender 

TANK LOCOMOTIVE. 



Gauge, 4 ft., 8>2 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design skozvn by Plate ,V/77. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 

Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 
and 
Rear Truck 

Ibs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 

Tank. 
Gals. 








1 








13^X22 


50 


6 ft. 6 in. 


20 ft. 9 in. 


43200 


C I2OOO 
( 98OO 


65OOO 


70O 


15x22 


50 


6 ft. 8 in. 


20 ft. 


44500 


( I4OOO 
( I050O 


69OOO 


7OO 


16X22 


50 


7 ft. 


21 ft. 6 in. 


47000 


^ 14800 
1 I I 2OO 


73000 


" 750 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 

Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1268 


867 


6 5 I 


429 


315 


247 


20 1 


161 


133 


1305 


892 


669 


440 


324 


253 


206 


165 


136 


1381 


942 


707 


465 


342 


267 


218 


174 


H3 


- 



















THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



163 



Eight Wheel Double -Ender 



TANK LOCOMOTIVE. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8>^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design sltiivn by Plate XVII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 
and 
Rear Truck 
Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
(Jals. 


15X22 


56 


6 ft. 9 in. 


21 ft. 6 in. 


45500 


( I4OOO 
( 10500 


7OOOO 


7OO 


16X22 


56 


7 ft. 


2 1 ft. 6 in. 


48000 


( 14800 
\ I I 2OO 


74OOO 


750 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


1335 


915 


685 


45i 


332 


260 


212 


169 


I4O 


1408 


963 


722 


476 


350 


274 


223 


I 7 8 


H7 



1 64 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




I 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



I6s 



Ten Wheel Double-Ender Locomotives 

WITH TANK OVER REAR TRUCK. 



Gauge, 4 ft., S}4 in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XVIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Kngine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 
and 
Rear Truck 
Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


15X22 50 


7 ft. 


29 ft. 8 in. ' 60000 P 0000 
( 25000 


95OOO 


IOOO 


16X22 


50 


7 ft. 


29 ft. 8 in. 


62000 


( IO5OO 
\ 250OO 


97500 


IOOO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 60 ft. 


Soft. 


1 00 ft. 


1 25 ft. 1 50 ft. 


1759 


1 202 


901 


593 436 


34i 


277 ' 


221 


182 


1818 


1242 


932 


613 


45i 


35 2 


287 


229 


189 



1 66 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Ten Wheel Double-Ender Locomotives 

WITH TANK OVER REAR TRUCK. 



Gauge, 4 ft, &y in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XVI II. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 
and 
RearTruck 
Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


15X22 


56 


7 ft. 


29 ft 8 in. 


61000 


C IOOOO 
\ 25OOO 


96000 


IOOO 


16X22 


56 


7 ft. 


29 ft. 8 in. 


63000 


( IO5OO 
{ 25OOO 


98500 


IOOO 



















Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


too ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1789 


1222 


917 


604 


444 


347 


283 


226 


1 86 


1847 


1262 


947 


623 


458 


358 


292 


233 


192 



1 68 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




8 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



169 



Ten Wheel Double-Ender Tank Locomotive 



WITH SIX DRIVERS. 



Gauge, 4 ft., 8>^ in. or wider. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XIX. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 

Wheels. 
Ihs. 


On Front 
and 
Rear Truck 
Ibs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


I5X2O 42 : 1 2 ft. 


24 ft. 


67400 


C 9000 

(7500 


83900 


1400 


15X20 


49 


1 2 ft. 6 in. 


2 5 ft. 


68000 


(9300 
\ 7700 


85000 


1600 



















Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1988 


1362 


IO24 


678 


502 


394 


323 


261 


217 


2005 


1373 


1032 


684 


SOS 


397 


326 


262 


218 



170 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




8 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Eight Wheel Forney Engine 

WITH TANK OVER TRUCK. 



Gauge, 4 ft, 8y in. or wider. Fuel, Anthracite Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XX. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


II X 16 


42 


5 ft. 


1 6 ft. i in. 


29000 


14000 


43000 


500 


I2X 18 


42 


5 ft- 3 in- 


1 6 ft. /in. 


34000 


18000 


52000 


650 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


iSoft 


851 582 


437 


288 217 


1 66 


US 


1 08 


89 


998 


682 


512 


337 


248 


194 


158 


127 


104 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 1/3 



CHAPTER X. 

PLATES AND TABLES OF DIMENSIONS AND CAPACITY OF NARROW GAUGE 

LOCOMOTIVES. 

THE following are some of the styles of locomotives adapted to gauges 
of less than 4 feet 8^ inches: 

In the construction of Narrow Guage Engines here shown, and more 
especially in the illustration of parts of Locomotives, it will be seen that to 
secure sufficient water space, steam room, and firebox room, special designs were 
made, which make these engines as efficient in service as those of wider gauge. 



174 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




s 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



175 



Eight Wheel Standard Locomotives 

FOR PASSENGERS OR FREIGHT. 



Narrow Gau^e Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design sJlo^vn by Plate XXL 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 

POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


I2X l6 


41 


7ft. 4 in. 


19 ft. 


26000 


I500O 


4IOOO 


I2OO 


13x20 


55 


7 ft. 9 in. 


20 ft. 5 in. 


29600 


I82OO 


47800 


1300 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


1 2 5 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


748 


507 


376 


243 


175 


134 


1 06 


81 


65 


851 


577 


428 


2 7 8 


199 


152 


121 


93 


74 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



177 



Mogul Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 



Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design slioivn by Plate XXII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 

Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 

Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


I4X 18 


37 


12 ft. 4 in. 


1 8 ft. 4 in. 


43600 


8700 


52300 


1400 


15* 18 


37 


12 ft I O in 


1 8 ft. loin. 


45500 


9OOO 


54500 


1500 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


IOO ft. 


125 ft. 


iSoft. 


1271 


866 


648 


425 


310 


240 


194 


154 


125 


1326 


94 


676 


442 


323 


251 


203 


1 60 


131 



12 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Mogul Locomotives 



FOR FREIGHT. 



Narrow Gau^e Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XXII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 

Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs: 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 

Gals. 


I4X 18 


41 


13 ft. 


1 9 ft. 3 in. 


44500 


8700 


53200 


I4OO 


I5X 18 


41 


1 3 ft. 4 in. 


1 9 ft. 7 in. 


47000 


9000 


56000 


I50O 



I 


Load in tons of 2OOO pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


i oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1297 


884 


66 1 


432 


3i6 


245 


193 


157 


128 


2 


1373 


936 


699 


457 


334 


259 


2IO 


1 66 


136 


3 




















4 




















5 





















i So 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



181 



Mogul Locomotives 

FOR FREIGHT. 
Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 

General Design slioivn by Plate XXIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 

Wheels. 

Ibs. 


On 
FrontTruck 
On~Each 
TenderTr'k 
Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


13* 18 


30 


7 ft. 6 in. 


33 ft. 3 in. 


38000 


C 9500 

( I2OOO 


75000 


1000 


13X18 


37 


7 ft. 6 in. 


33ft. 9 in. 


39500 


\ 9500 
\ I2OOO 


77000 


IOOO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 

Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


1 00 ft. 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


I IOO 


748 


557 


362 


262 


202 


162 


126 


I O2 


1144 


7/8 


580 


377 


273 


21 I 


170 


132 


IO7 



In this style of Engine the rear end of the Engine is connected to and supported 

by the front end of the Tender. 

The forward tender truck is provided with swing motion. 
These Engines are specially adapted to sharp curves. 



182 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



183 



Four Wheel Tank Locomotive 



FOR SWITCHING. 



Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Piate XXIV. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


8X 12 


26 


5 ft. 


5 ft. 


18000 




I8OOO 


175 


8X 12 


30 


5 ft. 


5 ft. 


18500 




18500 


175 







Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 




at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 




On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


lOOft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1 


673 


428 


310 


198 


144 


H3 


92 


74 


62 


2 


692 


440 


319 


2O4 


149 


116 


95 


77 


64 


3 




















4 




















5 





















1 84 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Four Wheel Tank Locomotive 

FOR SWITCHING. 

Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 
General Design shown by Plate XXIV. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 

Ibs. 




Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
(Jals. 


9X 16 


30 


5 ft. 3 in. 


5 ft- 3 n. 


2800O 




28OOO 


275 


9X 16 


37 


5 ft- 3 in- 


5. ft. 3 in. 


29OOO 




29000 


275 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 10 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


iSoft. 


1046 


666 


482 


308 


225 


176 


144 


116 


96 


1083 


689 


499 


319 


232 


181 


148 


1 20 


99 



1 86 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 







THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Mogul Tank Locomotive 



FOR FREIGHT. 



Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XXV. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On 
Truck. 

Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 


13x18 


30 


9 ft. 


13 ft. loin. 


4IOOO 


8000 


49000 


740 



I 


Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


I 00 ft. 


1 2 5 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


1209 


829 


624 


413 


306 


241 


197 


159 


132 


2 




















3 




















4 




















5 





















188 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




s 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



189 



Eight Wheel Double-Ender Locomotive 

FOR FREIGHT OR PASSENGERS 



Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XXVI. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Separate 
Tender. 


and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 
and 
Rear Truck 
Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 
Gals. 












^ I I OOO 






12X20 


44 


6ft. 


22 ft. I in. 


3IOOO 




5 1 ooo 


I5OO 












( 9OOO 














C i i ooo 






I2X2O 


49 


6ft. 


22 it. I in. 


32OOO 


{ 9000 


52000 


I5OO 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft. 


100 ft. 


125 ft. 


1 50 ft. 


908 


620 


465 


305 


224 


i?5 


142 


H3 


93 


938 


641 


480 


3i6 


232 


181 


H7 


118 


97 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




a 

^ 
5! 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



Ten Wheel Double-Ender Locomotive 

WITH TANK OVER REAR TRUCK. 



Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design shown by Plate XX VI I. 



Cylinders. 

Diameter 
and 
Stroke. 

inches. 


Dia'eter 
of 
Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


Of 
Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 

Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 
and 
RearTruck 
Ibs. 


Total. 

Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank. 

Gals. 


9X 12 


30 


6ft. 


24ft. 


2OOOO 


C 5000 

( I400O 


39000 


6OO 


QX 12 


36 


6ft. 


26ft. 


21500 


C 5000 

( I4OOO 


40500 


60O 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 


at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 

Level. 


I Oft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


Soft 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. ' 150 ft. 


582 


397 


296 


194 


I 4 I 


109 


88 


70 56 


624 


425 


318 


2O9 


152 


119 


96 


76 


62 



192 



THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 




THE ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS. 



193 



Fourteen Wheel Double-Ender Locomotive 



WITH SIX DRIVERS AND TANK OVER REAR TRUCK. 



Narrow Gauge Track. Fuel, Bituminous Coal. 



General Design sliown by Plate XXVIII. 



Cylinders. 
Diameter 


Dia'eter 
of 


Wheel Base. 


Weight, in running order. 
POUNDS. 


Tank on 
Engine. 


and 

Stroke. 

inches. 


Driving 
Wheels. 

inches. 


Of 

Driving 
Wheels. 


Total. 


On 
Driving 
Wheels. 
Ibs. 


On Front 
and 

Rear Truck 
Ibs. 


Total. 
Ibs. 


Capacity 
of 
Tank, 
(jals. 


I2X 16 


34 


9 ft. 3 in. 


31 ft. ~\y 2 in. 


39000 


^ 80OO 
\ 250OO 


72OOO 


1200 


13^X16 


34 


9 ft. 3 in. 


3 i ft. I 1 4 in. 


4OOOO 


C 8200 

( 26OOO 


74200 


1300 



Load in tons of 2000 pounds in addition to Engine and Tender, 
at 20 miles an hour, on a grade per mile of 


On a 
Level. 


10 ft. 


20 ft. 


40 ft. 


60 ft. 


80 ft. 


I OO ft. 


125 ft. 


I 50 ft. 


1138 


7/6 


5 8l 


380 


278 


216 


175 


139 


113 


i 167 


796 


595 


390 


285 


222 


179 


142 


116 



INDEX. 



A. 



Adams, Charles Francis, 3, 4. 
Adhesion of Locomotives, 93, 94. 
Advertisement in American Railroad Journal, 3, 1 1 
"Aiken, William," the, 9. 
Alabama & Great Southern R. R., 65. 
Albany, 8. 

Allen & Hudson's grate, 34. 
Allen, Horatio, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 ; letter from, 2. 
Allen link-motion, 55, 56. 
Allen valve, 59. 
American cars, 94. 
American locomotives, u, 15. 
American Railroad Journal, 3, 10. 
advertisement in, 3, II. 
article from, II, 14, 15. 
American Railway Times, report in, 19, 20. 
" American " type of locomotive, 17. 
Anthracite coal burners, 92. 

" " fire-box, 25. 

" " grate for, 38. 

" Arresseoh No. 2," 13. 
" Atlantic " the, 8. 
Attica & Buffalo R. R., 29. 

B. 

Baldwin, Mr., patent by, 15. 

Baltimore, 3, 4, 5. 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R , 4, 7, 8, 23. 

Baltimore & Susquehanna R. R.. 10. 

Bar frames, 61. 

" Batavia " the, 14. 

Battle of the Locomotive, 3. 

Beaver Mill, I. 

Bed plate, 51. 

Belleview, 13. 

Belpaire fire-box, 26. 

" Best Friend," the, 7. 

Bissell's truck, 20, 21, 71, 72, 73. 

" inclined planes, 75. 
Bituminous coal, 33. 

'' burners, 92. 
Bonnet, 44. 

" stack, 45. 



Boiler, the, 23-27. 

capacity of, 96. 

plates, 31. 

seams, 32. 

shells, 31, 32. 
Bordentown, 5. 
Boston, 3. 

Boston & Lowell R. R., 5. 
Boston & Providence R. R., 5. 
Boston & Worcester R. R., 5. 
Brandt, John, 29. 
Brass tubes, 27. 
Brick- arch, 26, 27. 
Bridge, water, 25. 
Bristol roller slide-valve, 59. 
" Brother Jonathan " the, 9. 
Buchanan fire-box, 26. 
Buffalo & State Line R. R. , 20. 
Bury's frame, 60. 
Bury, Mr., 23, 

c. 

Cam, 55. 

Camden & Amboy, 5, 8. 

Campbell's locomotive, 16. 

Capacity of locomotives, tables of, 99-193. 

Carbondale, 6. 

Carbondale R. R., 4. 

Cars, American, 94. 

Catalogue, last, 78. 

Catechism of the Locomotive, 96. 

Caulking edges, 32. 

Caulking tool, 28. 

Cayuga Lake, 5. 

Cayuga & Susquehanna R. R., 5. 

Centennial exhibition, 8. 

Central R. R. of New Jersey, 55. 

Channelling, 32. 

Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, 4. 

Charleston, 3. 

Charleston & Columbia R. R., 9. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., 25. 

Childs, Mr., 8. 

Chimney, 46. 

Chimney damper, 49. 

Cinders. 40. 



196 



I N D K X . 



Clark's, D. K., Manual, 93. 

Clark, John, Jr., I. 

Clark & Rogers, I. 

Clinker, 53. 

"Clinton," the, 13. 

Coal, for fuel, 24. 

Collision, 62. 

Combustion chambers, 25. 

Compound locomotive, Hudson's, 22. 

Compression, 55- 

Cone, deflecting, 12, 45; inverted, 14, 44, 47, 

Connecting-rods, 65-68. 

Consolidation locomotives, 20. 

springs for, 64. 

tables and plates of, 134-137. 
Cooper, Peter, 7 ; locomotive by, 7. 
Cooper, William K., 13 
Copper thimble, 29. 
Copper tubes, 27. 
Corrosion, 32. 

Cotton duck, manufacture of, i. 
Cotton, spinning of, I, 2. 

Counterbalancing of wheels, 15, 16 ; of cranks, 
Counterweights for links, 56, 57- 
Covering strips, 32. 
Crank-axle, 13, 14, 15, 16. 
Crank, half, 15. 
Cranks, location of, 14. 
Crown -bars, 24. 
Crown-sheets, staying of, 24. 
Crum Creek, 4. 
Cullen, James, 65. 
Cumberland Valley R. R., 26. 
Curves, effect of, 95 ; radius of, 95. 
Cut-off valve, 54. 
Cylinders, 50-52. 

capacity of, 96. 

insitle, 13. 

position of, 69. 
Cylindrical top of furnace, 24. 

D. 

Damper, chimney, 49. 
Davis & Gartner, 8. 
Declaration of Independence, 4. 
Deflecting cone, 45. 
" plate, 40.. 

Deflector, 46, 47, 48; for furnace doors, 31. 
" Delaware," the, 9. 
Delaware & Hudson Canal Co., 4, 6. 
Delaware County, Pa., 4. 
Development of the locomotive, 10, 23, 76. 
" De Witt Clinton," the, 8. 
Diagram from schedule board, 83. 
Diamond stack, 45. 
Dickerson, Judge, 10. 



Dimensions of Locomotives, 82 ; tables of, 99-193 
Dome, hemispherical, 14. 
Domes, 32. 

Double-ender locomotive, 75. 
Hudson's, 21. 

plates and tables of, 160-169, 188-193. 
Driving-wheels, 65 ; first form of, 12. 
Driving-wheel springs, 76. 
Drop-door for grates, 33. 
Dudgeon's expander, 30. 
49. Duplicate parts, 78. 

D-valves, 52. 



E. 



Early history of railroads, 3-5. 

Eccentrics, outside, 52. 

"Edgefield," the, 9. 

Eight-wheel double-ender locomotive, plates and 

tables of, 160-163. 
Eight-wheel Forney locomotives, plates and 

table of, 1 88, 189. 
Eight-wheel (n.g. ) double-ender tank locomotive, 

plate and table of, 188, 189. 
Eight-wheel standard locomotives, plates and 

table of, 102-1 13. 
Eight-wheel standard (n. g. ) locomotives, plates 

and table of, 174, 175. 
Ellicott's Mills, 5 
Engines, 50. 
English engines, 9, 10. 
Equalizing levers, 17, 63, 64. 

Hudson's, 22, 74. 

for truck, 76. 

from front driving axle to truck, first use 

of, 17. 

Erie Canal, 3, 4. 
Erie R. R., 29. 

Exhaust ports, 57, 58 ; double, 59. 
Expander, Dudgeon's, 30 ; Prossers, 30. 
Expansion and contraction of tubes, 28. 
Expansion of steam, 52. 
" Experiment," the, 13. 
Extended smoke-box, 40. 
Extraordinary feat, 15. 

F. 

Feed water heater, 42. 
Finger grate, 35, 36, 37. 
Finish of engines, 15. 
Fire-box, Belpaire's, 26. 

" Buchanan's, 26. 

" for anthracite coal, 25. 

" overhang of, 13, 

" semi-circular, 14. 
Fire-brick, 27. 



INDEX. 



197 



Fontaine stack, 47. 

Forney's Catechism of the Locomotive, 96. 
' ' locomotive, 21. 

plate and table of, 170, 171. 
Foster, Rastrick & Co., 6. 
Four-wheel locomotives, 23. 

plates and tables of, 152-154. 
Four-wheel (n. g) double-ender tank locomotive, 

plate and table of, 192, 193. 
Four-wheel tank (n. g.) locomotive, plate and 

table of, 182-184. 
Four-wheel tank locomotives, plates and tables 

of, 152-154. 

Frames, 60-64 ; Bury's, 60 ; Hudson's, 62. 
Friction, co-efficient of, 93. 
Fry, Howard, 92. 
Furnace door deflector, 31. 
" semi-circular, 14. 

G. 

Gallon, Capt, paper on brakes, 93. 

Gauge, five feet, 65 ; of roads in Ohio, 13. 

Gauges, 78- 

Gleason's valve, 58. 

Godwin, Abraham, Jr., I. 

Godwin, Rogers & Co., I. 

Grate, Allen &. Hudson's, 34. 

" finger, 35-37. 

" for anthracite coal, 38. 

" "plain, "33. 

" rocking, 36, 37. 

" water, 25 40. 
Grate-bars, 33. 
Grates, 33-40 ; shaking, 33. 
Grooving, 32. 
Grosvenor, Jasper, 2. 

H. 

Hack worth valve, 57, 58. 

Half crank, 18. 

Harper's Ferry, 5. 

Headden, John, 78. 

Helical spring, 57. 

Hemispherical dome, 14. 

Hemispherical furnace, 23, 24. 

Hightstown, 5. 

History of locomotive building, II. 

" locomotives, 6-10. 

" railroads, 3-5. 
Hogg, Thomas, 13. 
Honesdale, Pa., 4, 6. 
Hood, 45. 
Horizontal cylinders, 69. 



Hudson, William S., 31, 75, 76, 78. 
" appointment of, 20. 
'' death of, 22. 
" obituary notice of, 22. 
Hudson's compound locomotive, 22. 

" design of link motion, 54. 

'' double-ender locomotive, 21. 

" experiments with tubes, 29. 

" feed water heater, 42. 

" frames, 62. 

" patents, 22. 

" patent for double-ender locomotive, 21. 

" patent grate, 34. 

" patent on equalizing levers, 74. 

" patent on trucks, 73. 

" spark arrester, 47. 
Hudson river, 3. 
Hudson River R. R., 53. 
Hughes, R. S., 65. 



I. 



Independent cut-off valves, 17, 18, 54. 

Injectors, 44. 

Inside connected engines, 16. 

Inside cylinders, 13, 18, 50. 

Intel-changeability, 78. 

Iron boiler plates, 31. 

Iron tubes, 27. 

J- 

James, J. H., 13. 

Jefferson Works, 2. 

"Jersey Blue," letter of, 15, 16. 

Jervis, John B., 6, 8, 9, 10. 

"John Bull" the, 8. 

Journal bearings, outside, 60. 



Ketchum, Morris, 2. 



K. 



L. 



Lateral moving trucks, 73. 
Layng. J. D., 80, 92. 
Leaky tubes, 27, 28, 29. 
Lifting-shaft, 53, 54. 
Lehigh Valley Canal, 4. 
Link-motion, 53-56. 

Allen's, 55, 56. 

first use of, 18. 

Links, counterweighting of, 56, 57. 
Liverpool & Manchester Railway, 3, 16, 23. 
Load an_ engine will draw, 95, 96. 
Lockport & Niagara Falls R. R., 13. 



198 



INDEX 



Locomotive, battle of, 3. 

development of, 76. 

double-ender, 75. 

Hudson's patent, 76. 
Locomotives, adhesion of, 94. 

consolidation, plates, and tables of, 

134-I37. 

dimensions of, 82. 
" eight-wheel double-ender, plates 

and tables of, 160-163. 
eight-wheel " Forney," plate and 

table of, 170-171. 
" four-wheel (n. g.) tank, plates and 

tables of, 182-184. 
'" eight-wheel standard, plates and 

tables of, 102-113. 
' eight- wheel standard (n. g. ), plates 

and tables of, 174, 175. 
four-wheel, plates and tables of, 138- 

142. 
" four-wheel tank, plates and tables 

of, 152-154. 

" mogul, plates and tables of, 114-120 

n. g., plates and tables of, 173-195. 

" n. g., eight-wheel double-ender 

tank, plate and table of, 188, 189. 
" n. g., fourteen-wheel double-ender 

tank, plate and table of, 192, 193. 
" n. g., mogul, plates and tables of, 

176-181. 
" n. g. mogul, tank, plates and tables 

of, 186, 187. 
" n. g. tank, plates and tables of, 182- 

193- 

" n. g. ten-wheel double ender tank, 

plate and table of, 190, 191. 
" number built by Roger's Works, 

76, 77- 
six-wheel, plates and tables of, 144- 

150. 
" six-wheel tank, plates and tables of, 

156-158. 
" tables of dimensions and capacity of, 

94-193- 
" ten-wheel double-ender, plates and 

tables of, 164-169. 
" ten- wheel, plates and tables of, 122- 

132. 
tractive power of, 93. 

M. 

Mad River & Lake Erie R. R., 13. 
Mandril, for expanding tubes, 28, 30. 
Map of Roger's Works, 78, 79. 
" Maryland " the, 9. 
Massachusetts, 5. 



Matanzas R. R., 26. 

Mauch Chunk, 4. 

" McNeill" the, 10. 

Men, number employed, 78. 

Mexico, I. 

Milholland's fire-box, 25. 

Miller, E. L., 7. 

Mogul locomotive, 73. 

" first, 20. 

" plates and tables of, 114-120. 

" n. g. plates and tables of, 176-181. 

" n. g. tank, plates and tables of, 186, 187. 

" truck for, 75. 

Mohawk & Hudson R. R., 5, 8, 9. 
Molesworth's Pocket-Book, 93. 



N. 



Narrow gauge locomotive, 64. 

plates and tables of, 173-193. 
Nashville & Chattanooga R. R., 40. 
Nashville, Chatanooga <fc St. Louis R. R., 15. 
Newcastle & French town R. R., 8. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 8, 9. 
New York, State of, 5. 
New York& Erie R. R., 18. 
New York Central R. R., 5. 
New York, West Shore & Buffalo R. R., 80, 92, 
New Jersey R. R. & Transportation Co., 12, 13. 

25, 40, 78. 

Netting, 45, 46, 47, 48. 
Northern Central R. R,, 10. 

o. 

Ohio river, 3, 4, 5. 

Organic development of locomotion, 23. 

Oscillation, 16. 

Outside connected engines, 16. 

" cylinders, 50. 

" frames, 19. 

" journal bearings, 60. 

P. 

Pambour's Treatise on Locomotives, 93. 

Paris & Lyons R. R., 93. 

Patent for counterbalancing wheels, 12, 15. 

" for double-ender locomotive, 21. 

" grate, 34. 

" Hudson's locomotive, 76. 

" Hudson's on trucks, 73. 

" Hudson's on equalizing levers, 74. 

" on Allen valve, 59. 

" on Bissell's truck, 71. 
Paterson & Hudson River R. R., 5, 10, 18. 



INDEX. 



199 



Patillas Railway, 55. 

Paul & Beggs, 2, u. 

Pedestals, 62. 

" Pennsylvania " the, 9. 

Pennsylvania R. R., 78. 

Perforated sheet-iron cone, 49. 

Philadelphia, 3, 4. 

Philadelphia & Columbia R. R., 5. 

Philadelphia & Reading R. R., 25, 38. 

Pittsburgh, 5. 

" Plain " grate, 33. 

Plan of Rogers Works, 78, 79. 

" Planet " the, 9. 

Plates of locomotives, 102-193. 

Poiree, M., experiments by, 93. 

Pony truck, 20, 71. 

Poores' Railroad Manual, 4. 

Portage R. R., 5. 

Presser's expander, 30. 



Q. 



Quincy granite quarries, 4. 

R. 

Radius-bar, 73. 

Radius of curve, 95. 

Radley & Hunter stack, 46. 

" Railroad Era," 6. 

Railroad mania, 4. 

Railroad Gazette, extract from, 22 ; letter to, 80. 

Rainhill contest, 3. 

Receptacle for sparks, 47, 48. 

Record, running table of, 84, 85, 89. 

Reinforcing ring, 32. 

Remarkable run, 80. 

Rensselaer & Saratoga R. R., 5. 

Resistance of trains, 94, 95. 

Reversing gear, 15. 

Richardson valve, 59. 

Ridley Creek, 4. 

Rivets, 32. 

" Rocket" the, 6, 9. 

Rocking grate, 36, 37. 

Rocking shaft, 53, 54, 55. 

Rogers, J. S., 23. 

Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, 20. 

Rogers, Ketchum, & Grosvenor, 2, 3, n, 14, 15, 

16, 20, 76. 
Rogers, Thomas, I, 5, 14, 29. 

advocate of the link, 53. 

death of, 20. 

patent for counter-balancing crank, etc., 12- 
Run, a remarkable, 80. 
Running gear, 60. 
Running record, table of, 84, 85. 



s. 



Saddle on valve, 58. 

Safety-valves, 44. 

Sand, effect of, 94. 

"Sandusky," the, 12, 13, 78; boiler of, 23. 

Saratoga & Schenectady R. R. , 5, 9. 

Savanilla R. R., 17, 18. 

Schedule board, 81, 83. 

Schenectady, 8. 

Scoop shovel, 31. 

Screw stays, 25. 

Seams of boilers, 32. 

Shaking grates, 33. 

Shield, 47. 

Shifting-link motion, 53; first use of, 18. 

Six-wheeled coupled locomotives, 19, 21. 

tables and plates of, 144-150. 

with tank, 156-158. 
Slide valves, 57-60. 

Smith, A. F., 20; truck, 72: swing links, 75. 
Smith, Timothy, 13. 

Smoke-boxes, 40-42, 50-52 ; extended, 40. 
Smoke prevention, 31. 
Smoke-stacks, 44-49. 
South Amboy, 5. 
"South Carolina," the, 7. 
South Carolina R. R., 2, 5, 7, 9, 13. 
Southern R. R., of Chili, 42. 
Spark catcher, 14. 
Spark arrester, 44-49. 
Sparks, 40. 

Speed between stations, table of, 86, 87. 
Speed, influence of, 94. 

memorandum of, 92. 

table of, 90. 
Spiral spring, 57. 
Spokes, hollow, 12, 14; oval, 13. 
Springs, 63-64. 
Springs, driving-wheel, 76. 
Staying of wagon top boiler, 24. 
Steam-gauges, use of, 27. 
Steam-chests, inclosed, 18 
Steam-ports, 59. 
Steam room, 24. 
Stephenson, 3. 
Stephenson engines, 13. 
Stephenson, George. 10. 
Stephenson, George & Robert, 8. 
Stephenson, R. & Co., 9, 10. 
" Stevens," the, 9. 
" Stockbridge," the, 16. 
Stockton & Darlington R. R., 3. 
Stourbridge, 6. 
Stourbridge Lion, 4, 6. 
Straight stack, 47, 48, 49. 



20O 



INDEX. 



Stricture, 48. 

Summarized running record, 89. 
Summarized speed record, 90. 
Super-heater for compound locomotive, 22. 
Supplementary rocking-shaft, 55. 
Supplementary steam-ports, 57. 
Susquehanna river, 5- 
Swing-motion truck, 21, 73, 76- 
Swing-links, 72, 73, 75. 
Switching engines, 21. 

T. 

Table of characteristics of road, 91. 

" of dimensions of locomotives, 82. 

" of running record, 84, 85, 89. 

" of speed, 92. 

" of speed between stations, 86, 87. 

" of speed record, 90. 

" of weight of train, 88. 

" showing locomotives built from 1837 to '86. 
Tables of dimensions and capacity of locomotives, 

99-193- 
Tank locomotives, patents for, 22. 

" plates and tables of, 152-171. 

" n. g., 182-193. 
Templates, 78. 
Ten-wheel locomotive, first, 17, 18. 

" locomotives, tables and plates of, 122- 

132. 
Ten-wheel double-ender locomotives, table and 

plates of, 164-169. 
Thimbles, 28, 29. 
Toledo & Adrian R. R., 13. 
Tonawanda R. R., 14. 
Tools, 78. 

Tractive power of locomotives, 93, 94. 
Train, make up and weight of, 88. 
Transcript from schedule board, 83. 
Tramways, 4. 
Truck, Bissell's, 20, 71, 75. 

*' first invention of, 9, 10. 

" frames, 14. 

" pony, 71, 76. 

" swing motion, 73> 7^- 

" with inside and outside bearings, 7- 



Trucks, 69 ; Hudson's patent, 73. 
Tubes, 27-30. 

expansion and contraction of, 28. 

fastening of, 28. 

u. 

Uhry & Lutgen's valve-gearing, 55. 

V. 

Valve, Allen's, 59. 

Bristol's, 59. 

Hackworth's, 58. 

Gleason's, 58. 

Richardson's, 59- 

Valves and valve-gearing, 52, 57) 60. 
V-hooks, 17, 1 8. 
Volute spring, 57. 
" Vulcan," the, 20. 

w. 

Wagon top boiler, 24, 

Ward, Captain, I. 

Washington Branch, 5. 

Water-bridge, 25. 

Water-grate, 25, 40. 

Water-leg, 25. 

Water-tubes, 27. 

Weight of train, table of, 88. 

Welt, 32. 

W r est Point" Foundry Association, 2, 7, 

Wheatly, W. H., letter from, 80. 

Winans, Ross, 10. 

Wind, effect of, 94. 

Wire netting, 45, 48. 

Wood fuel, 33. 

Wood's papers on locomotives, 15. 

treatise on railroads, 9. 
Wrought-iron grate bars. 33. 



Y. 



York, Pa. , 8. 
"York," the, 8. 



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